Changeset 5027


Ignore:
Timestamp:
Sep 17, 2021 1:46:47 PM (5 weeks ago)
Author:
vondreele
Message:

revise LeBail? tutorial

Location:
Tutorials/LeBail
Files:
17 added
11 edited

Legend:

Unmodified
Added
Removed
  • Tutorials/LeBail/LeBailSucrose.fld/filelist.xml

    r4946 r5027  
    33 <o:File HRef="themedata.thmx"/>
    44 <o:File HRef="colorschememapping.xml"/>
    5  <o:File HRef="image005.png"/>
    6  <o:File HRef="image002.png"/>
     5 <o:File HRef="image001.png"/>
     6 <o:File HRef="image003.png"/>
     7 <o:File HRef="image004.png"/>
    78 <o:File HRef="image006.png"/>
     9 <o:File HRef="image016.png"/>
     10 <o:File HRef="image013.png"/>
    811 <o:File HRef="image007.png"/>
     12 <o:File HRef="image027.png"/>
     13 <o:File HRef="image028.png"/>
     14 <o:File HRef="image029.png"/>
    915 <o:File HRef="image008.png"/>
     16 <o:File HRef="image031.png"/>
    1017 <o:File HRef="image009.png"/>
     18 <o:File HRef="image033.png"/>
    1119 <o:File HRef="image010.png"/>
     20 <o:File HRef="image035.png"/>
    1221 <o:File HRef="image011.png"/>
     22 <o:File HRef="image037.png"/>
    1323 <o:File HRef="image012.png"/>
    14  <o:File HRef="image013.png"/>
    15  <o:File HRef="image014.png"/>
     24 <o:File HRef="image015.png"/>
     25 <o:File HRef="image017.png"/>
     26 <o:File HRef="image018.png"/>
     27 <o:File HRef="image019.png"/>
     28 <o:File HRef="image020.png"/>
     29 <o:File HRef="image021.png"/>
    1630 <o:File HRef="filelist.xml"/>
    1731</xml>
  • Tutorials/LeBail/LeBailSucrose.htm

    r4902 r5027  
    2222 <o:DocumentProperties>
    2323  <o:Author>Von Dreele</o:Author>
    24   <o:LastAuthor>Toby, Brian H.</o:LastAuthor>
    25   <o:Revision>6</o:Revision>
    26   <o:TotalTime>2444</o:TotalTime>
     24  <o:LastAuthor>Von Dreele, Robert B.</o:LastAuthor>
     25  <o:Revision>9</o:Revision>
     26  <o:TotalTime>3113</o:TotalTime>
    2727  <o:Created>2020-11-16T01:37:00Z</o:Created>
    28   <o:LastSaved>2021-03-08T03:53:00Z</o:LastSaved>
     28  <o:LastSaved>2021-09-17T18:29:00Z</o:LastSaved>
    2929  <o:Pages>1</o:Pages>
    30   <o:Words>1557</o:Words>
    31   <o:Characters>8877</o:Characters>
     30  <o:Words>2011</o:Words>
     31  <o:Characters>11468</o:Characters>
    3232  <o:Company>Argonne National Laboratory</o:Company>
    33   <o:Lines>73</o:Lines>
    34   <o:Paragraphs>20</o:Paragraphs>
    35   <o:CharactersWithSpaces>10414</o:CharactersWithSpaces>
     33  <o:Lines>95</o:Lines>
     34  <o:Paragraphs>26</o:Paragraphs>
     35  <o:CharactersWithSpaces>13453</o:CharactersWithSpaces>
    3636  <o:Version>16.00</o:Version>
    3737 </o:DocumentProperties>
     
    4444<!--[if gte mso 9]><xml>
    4545 <w:WordDocument>
    46   <w:Zoom>140</w:Zoom>
     46  <w:Zoom>95</w:Zoom>
    4747  <w:SpellingState>Clean</w:SpellingState>
    4848  <w:GrammarState>Clean</w:GrammarState>
     
    292292   Name="HTML Variable"/>
    293293  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
     294   Name="Normal Table"/>
     295  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
    294296   Name="annotation subject"/>
    295297  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
     
    383385  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
    384386   Name="Table Web 2"/>
     387  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
     388   Name="Table Web 3"/>
    385389  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
    386390   Name="Balloon Text"/>
    387391  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="59" Name="Table Grid"/>
     392  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
     393   Name="Table Theme"/>
    388394  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" Name="Placeholder Text"/>
    389395  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="1" QFormat="true" Name="No Spacing"/>
     
    662668 @font-face
    663669        {font-family:Courier;
    664         panose-1:0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0;
     670        panose-1:2 7 4 9 2 2 5 2 4 4;
     671        mso-font-alt:"Courier New";
    665672        mso-font-charset:0;
    666         mso-generic-font-family:auto;
    667         mso-font-pitch:variable;
    668         mso-font-signature:3 0 0 0 3 0;}
     673        mso-generic-font-family:modern;
     674        mso-font-format:other;
     675        mso-font-pitch:fixed;
     676        mso-font-signature:3 0 0 0 1 0;}
    669677@font-face
    670678        {font-family:Wingdings;
    671679        panose-1:5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0;
    672         mso-font-charset:0;
    673         mso-generic-font-family:decorative;
     680        mso-font-charset:2;
     681        mso-generic-font-family:auto;
    674682        mso-font-pitch:variable;
    675         mso-font-signature:3 0 0 0 1 0;}
     683        mso-font-signature:0 268435456 0 0 -2147483648 0;}
    676684@font-face
    677685        {font-family:"Cambria Math";
     
    680688        mso-generic-font-family:roman;
    681689        mso-font-pitch:variable;
    682         mso-font-signature:-536870145 1107305727 0 0 415 0;}
     690        mso-font-signature:-536869121 1107305727 33554432 0 415 0;}
    683691@font-face
    684692        {font-family:Calibri;
     
    687695        mso-generic-font-family:swiss;
    688696        mso-font-pitch:variable;
    689         mso-font-signature:-536859905 -1073732485 9 0 511 0;}
     697        mso-font-signature:-469750017 -1073732485 9 0 511 0;}
    690698@font-face
    691699        {font-family:Tahoma;
     
    852860        {mso-style-name:"";
    853861        mso-spl-e:yes;}
    854 span.GramE
    855         {mso-style-name:"";
    856         mso-gram-e:yes;}
    857862.MsoChpDefault
    858863        {mso-style-type:export-only;
     
    942947        font-family:Wingdings;}
    943948@list l1
    944         {mso-list-id:82917343;
    945         mso-list-type:hybrid;
    946         mso-list-template-ids:-1527319822 -2100533712 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715;}
    947 @list l1:level1
    948         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    949         mso-level-number-position:left;
    950         margin-left:.75in;
    951         text-indent:-.25in;}
    952 @list l1:level2
    953         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    954         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    955         mso-level-number-position:left;
    956         margin-left:1.25in;
    957         text-indent:-.25in;}
    958 @list l1:level3
    959         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    960         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    961         mso-level-number-position:right;
    962         margin-left:1.75in;
    963         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
    964 @list l1:level4
    965         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    966         mso-level-number-position:left;
    967         margin-left:2.25in;
    968         text-indent:-.25in;}
    969 @list l1:level5
    970         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    971         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    972         mso-level-number-position:left;
    973         margin-left:2.75in;
    974         text-indent:-.25in;}
    975 @list l1:level6
    976         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    977         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    978         mso-level-number-position:right;
    979         margin-left:3.25in;
    980         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
    981 @list l1:level7
    982         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    983         mso-level-number-position:left;
    984         margin-left:3.75in;
    985         text-indent:-.25in;}
    986 @list l1:level8
    987         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    988         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    989         mso-level-number-position:left;
    990         margin-left:4.25in;
    991         text-indent:-.25in;}
    992 @list l1:level9
    993         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    994         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    995         mso-level-number-position:right;
    996         margin-left:4.75in;
    997         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
    998 @list l2
    999         {mso-list-id:236667377;
    1000         mso-list-type:hybrid;
    1001         mso-list-template-ids:-513138304 1385070818 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715;}
    1002 @list l2:level1
    1003         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1004         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1005         margin-left:.75in;
    1006         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1007 @list l2:level2
    1008         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    1009         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1010         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1011         margin-left:1.25in;
    1012         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1013 @list l2:level3
    1014         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    1015         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1016         mso-level-number-position:right;
    1017         margin-left:1.75in;
    1018         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
    1019 @list l2:level4
    1020         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1021         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1022         margin-left:2.25in;
    1023         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1024 @list l2:level5
    1025         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    1026         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1027         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1028         margin-left:2.75in;
    1029         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1030 @list l2:level6
    1031         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    1032         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1033         mso-level-number-position:right;
    1034         margin-left:3.25in;
    1035         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
    1036 @list l2:level7
    1037         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1038         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1039         margin-left:3.75in;
    1040         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1041 @list l2:level8
    1042         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    1043         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1044         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1045         margin-left:4.25in;
    1046         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1047 @list l2:level9
    1048         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    1049         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1050         mso-level-number-position:right;
    1051         margin-left:4.75in;
    1052         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
    1053 @list l3
    1054         {mso-list-id:533275380;
    1055         mso-list-type:hybrid;
    1056         mso-list-template-ids:-1319630076 -1606007952 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715;}
    1057 @list l3:level1
    1058         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1059         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1060         margin-left:.75in;
    1061         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1062 @list l3:level2
    1063         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    1064         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1065         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1066         margin-left:1.25in;
    1067         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1068 @list l3:level3
    1069         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    1070         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1071         mso-level-number-position:right;
    1072         margin-left:1.75in;
    1073         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
    1074 @list l3:level4
    1075         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1076         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1077         margin-left:2.25in;
    1078         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1079 @list l3:level5
    1080         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    1081         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1082         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1083         margin-left:2.75in;
    1084         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1085 @list l3:level6
    1086         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    1087         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1088         mso-level-number-position:right;
    1089         margin-left:3.25in;
    1090         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
    1091 @list l3:level7
    1092         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1093         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1094         margin-left:3.75in;
    1095         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1096 @list l3:level8
    1097         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    1098         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1099         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1100         margin-left:4.25in;
    1101         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1102 @list l3:level9
    1103         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    1104         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1105         mso-level-number-position:right;
    1106         margin-left:4.75in;
    1107         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
    1108 @list l4
    1109         {mso-list-id:588542776;
    1110         mso-list-type:hybrid;
    1111         mso-list-template-ids:477805396 -2056748102 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715;}
    1112 @list l4:level1
    1113         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1114         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1115         margin-left:.75in;
    1116         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1117 @list l4:level2
    1118         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    1119         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1120         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1121         margin-left:1.25in;
    1122         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1123 @list l4:level3
    1124         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    1125         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1126         mso-level-number-position:right;
    1127         margin-left:1.75in;
    1128         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
    1129 @list l4:level4
    1130         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1131         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1132         margin-left:2.25in;
    1133         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1134 @list l4:level5
    1135         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    1136         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1137         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1138         margin-left:2.75in;
    1139         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1140 @list l4:level6
    1141         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    1142         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1143         mso-level-number-position:right;
    1144         margin-left:3.25in;
    1145         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
    1146 @list l4:level7
    1147         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1148         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1149         margin-left:3.75in;
    1150         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1151 @list l4:level8
    1152         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    1153         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1154         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1155         margin-left:4.25in;
    1156         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1157 @list l4:level9
    1158         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    1159         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1160         mso-level-number-position:right;
    1161         margin-left:4.75in;
    1162         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
    1163 @list l5
    1164         {mso-list-id:854225785;
    1165         mso-list-type:hybrid;
    1166         mso-list-template-ids:-2071413312 1417604178 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715;}
    1167 @list l5:level1
    1168         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1169         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1170         margin-left:.75in;
    1171         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1172 @list l5:level2
    1173         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    1174         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1175         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1176         margin-left:1.25in;
    1177         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1178 @list l5:level3
    1179         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    1180         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1181         mso-level-number-position:right;
    1182         margin-left:1.75in;
    1183         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
    1184 @list l5:level4
    1185         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1186         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1187         margin-left:2.25in;
    1188         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1189 @list l5:level5
    1190         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    1191         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1192         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1193         margin-left:2.75in;
    1194         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1195 @list l5:level6
    1196         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    1197         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1198         mso-level-number-position:right;
    1199         margin-left:3.25in;
    1200         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
    1201 @list l5:level7
    1202         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1203         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1204         margin-left:3.75in;
    1205         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1206 @list l5:level8
    1207         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    1208         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1209         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1210         margin-left:4.25in;
    1211         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1212 @list l5:level9
    1213         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    1214         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1215         mso-level-number-position:right;
    1216         margin-left:4.75in;
    1217         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
    1218 @list l6
    1219         {mso-list-id:1022125565;
    1220         mso-list-type:hybrid;
    1221         mso-list-template-ids:-482838388 67698703 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715;}
    1222 @list l6:level1
    1223         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1224         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1225         margin-left:1.0in;
    1226         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1227 @list l6:level2
    1228         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    1229         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1230         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1231         margin-left:1.5in;
    1232         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1233 @list l6:level3
    1234         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    1235         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1236         mso-level-number-position:right;
    1237         margin-left:2.0in;
    1238         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
    1239 @list l6:level4
    1240         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1241         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1242         margin-left:2.5in;
    1243         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1244 @list l6:level5
    1245         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    1246         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1247         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1248         margin-left:3.0in;
    1249         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1250 @list l6:level6
    1251         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    1252         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1253         mso-level-number-position:right;
    1254         margin-left:3.5in;
    1255         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
    1256 @list l6:level7
    1257         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1258         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1259         margin-left:4.0in;
    1260         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1261 @list l6:level8
    1262         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    1263         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1264         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1265         margin-left:4.5in;
    1266         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1267 @list l6:level9
    1268         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    1269         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1270         mso-level-number-position:right;
    1271         margin-left:5.0in;
    1272         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
    1273 @list l7
    1274949        {mso-list-id:1209534511;
    1275950        mso-list-type:hybrid;
    1276951        mso-list-template-ids:909673020 67698689 67698691 67698693 67698689 67698691 67698693 67698689 67698691 67698693;}
    1277 @list l7:level1
     952@list l1:level1
    1278953        {mso-level-number-format:bullet;
    1279954        mso-level-text:\F0B7;
     
    1282957        text-indent:-.25in;
    1283958        font-family:Symbol;}
    1284 @list l7:level2
     959@list l1:level2
    1285960        {mso-level-number-format:bullet;
    1286961        mso-level-text:o;
     
    1289964        text-indent:-.25in;
    1290965        font-family:"Courier New";}
    1291 @list l7:level3
     966@list l1:level3
    1292967        {mso-level-number-format:bullet;
    1293968        mso-level-text:\F0A7;
     
    1296971        text-indent:-.25in;
    1297972        font-family:Wingdings;}
    1298 @list l7:level4
     973@list l1:level4
    1299974        {mso-level-number-format:bullet;
    1300975        mso-level-text:\F0B7;
     
    1303978        text-indent:-.25in;
    1304979        font-family:Symbol;}
    1305 @list l7:level5
     980@list l1:level5
    1306981        {mso-level-number-format:bullet;
    1307982        mso-level-text:o;
     
    1310985        text-indent:-.25in;
    1311986        font-family:"Courier New";}
    1312 @list l7:level6
     987@list l1:level6
    1313988        {mso-level-number-format:bullet;
    1314989        mso-level-text:\F0A7;
     
    1317992        text-indent:-.25in;
    1318993        font-family:Wingdings;}
    1319 @list l7:level7
     994@list l1:level7
    1320995        {mso-level-number-format:bullet;
    1321996        mso-level-text:\F0B7;
     
    1324999        text-indent:-.25in;
    13251000        font-family:Symbol;}
    1326 @list l7:level8
     1001@list l1:level8
    13271002        {mso-level-number-format:bullet;
    13281003        mso-level-text:o;
     
    13311006        text-indent:-.25in;
    13321007        font-family:"Courier New";}
    1333 @list l7:level9
     1008@list l1:level9
    13341009        {mso-level-number-format:bullet;
    13351010        mso-level-text:\F0A7;
     
    13381013        text-indent:-.25in;
    13391014        font-family:Wingdings;}
    1340 @list l8
    1341         {mso-list-id:2020618629;
     1015@list l2
     1016        {mso-list-id:1684547886;
    13421017        mso-list-type:hybrid;
    1343         mso-list-template-ids:-199700640 470186964 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715;}
    1344 @list l8:level1
    1345         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1346         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1347         margin-left:.75in;
    1348         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1349 @list l8:level2
    1350         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    1351         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1352         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1353         margin-left:1.25in;
    1354         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1355 @list l8:level3
    1356         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    1357         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1358         mso-level-number-position:right;
    1359         margin-left:1.75in;
    1360         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
    1361 @list l8:level4
    1362         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1363         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1364         margin-left:2.25in;
    1365         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1366 @list l8:level5
    1367         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    1368         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1369         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1370         margin-left:2.75in;
    1371         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1372 @list l8:level6
    1373         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    1374         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1375         mso-level-number-position:right;
    1376         margin-left:3.25in;
    1377         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
    1378 @list l8:level7
    1379         {mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1380         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1381         margin-left:3.75in;
    1382         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1383 @list l8:level8
    1384         {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower;
    1385         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1386         mso-level-number-position:left;
    1387         margin-left:4.25in;
    1388         text-indent:-.25in;}
    1389 @list l8:level9
    1390         {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower;
    1391         mso-level-tab-stop:none;
    1392         mso-level-number-position:right;
    1393         margin-left:4.75in;
    1394         text-indent:-9.0pt;}
     1018        mso-list-template-ids:-1669300722 67698689 67698691 67698693 67698689 67698691 67698693 67698689 67698691 67698693;}
     1019@list l2:level1
     1020        {mso-level-number-format:bullet;
     1021        mso-level-text:\F0B7;
     1022        mso-level-tab-stop:none;
     1023        mso-level-number-position:left;
     1024        text-indent:-.25in;
     1025        font-family:Symbol;}
     1026@list l2:level2
     1027        {mso-level-number-format:bullet;
     1028        mso-level-text:o;
     1029        mso-level-tab-stop:none;
     1030        mso-level-number-position:left;
     1031        text-indent:-.25in;
     1032        font-family:"Courier New";}
     1033@list l2:level3
     1034        {mso-level-number-format:bullet;
     1035        mso-level-text:\F0A7;
     1036        mso-level-tab-stop:none;
     1037        mso-level-number-position:left;
     1038        text-indent:-.25in;
     1039        font-family:Wingdings;}
     1040@list l2:level4
     1041        {mso-level-number-format:bullet;
     1042        mso-level-text:\F0B7;
     1043        mso-level-tab-stop:none;
     1044        mso-level-number-position:left;
     1045        text-indent:-.25in;
     1046        font-family:Symbol;}
     1047@list l2:level5
     1048        {mso-level-number-format:bullet;
     1049        mso-level-text:o;
     1050        mso-level-tab-stop:none;
     1051        mso-level-number-position:left;
     1052        text-indent:-.25in;
     1053        font-family:"Courier New";}
     1054@list l2:level6
     1055        {mso-level-number-format:bullet;
     1056        mso-level-text:\F0A7;
     1057        mso-level-tab-stop:none;
     1058        mso-level-number-position:left;
     1059        text-indent:-.25in;
     1060        font-family:Wingdings;}
     1061@list l2:level7
     1062        {mso-level-number-format:bullet;
     1063        mso-level-text:\F0B7;
     1064        mso-level-tab-stop:none;
     1065        mso-level-number-position:left;
     1066        text-indent:-.25in;
     1067        font-family:Symbol;}
     1068@list l2:level8
     1069        {mso-level-number-format:bullet;
     1070        mso-level-text:o;
     1071        mso-level-tab-stop:none;
     1072        mso-level-number-position:left;
     1073        text-indent:-.25in;
     1074        font-family:"Courier New";}
     1075@list l2:level9
     1076        {mso-level-number-format:bullet;
     1077        mso-level-text:\F0A7;
     1078        mso-level-tab-stop:none;
     1079        mso-level-number-position:left;
     1080        text-indent:-.25in;
     1081        font-family:Wingdings;}
    13951082ol
    13961083        {margin-bottom:0in;}
     
    14331120Extraction in GSAS-II - Sucrose<o:p></o:p></span></h1>
    14341121
    1435 <P><BL>
    1436   <LI>Exercise files are found <A href="./data/"
    1437   target="_blank">here</a>. The data files are also used in the 3rd
    1438   section of the
    1439 <a
    1440 href="../FitPeaks/Fit%20Peaks.htm#sucrose_peak_fit"
    1441 target="_blank">Fit Peaks/Autoindexing tutorial</a>.
    1442 </BL></P>
    1443 
     1122<p class=MsoNormal><BL><span style='font-family:Symbol;mso-ascii-font-family:
     1123"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin'>·</span><span
     1124style='mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin'><span
     1125style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Exercise files are found <a href="data/"
     1126target="_blank">here</a>. The data files are also used in the 3rd section of
     1127the <a href="../FitPeaks/Fit%20Peaks.htm#sucrose_peak_fit" target="_blank">Fit
     1128Peaks/Autoindexing tutorial</a>. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
     1129
     1130</BL>
    14441131
    14451132<h1><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Background <o:p></o:p></span></h1>
    14461133
    14471134<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-theme-font:
    1448 minor-latin'>In a Rietveld fit, a number of different items are fit, potentially
    1449 at the same time. These include the lattice parameters, atomic positions and
    1450 displacement (aka “temperature”, <span class=SpellE>U<sub>iso</sub></span> and <span
    1451 class=SpellE>U<sub>ij</sub></span>) parameters for one or more phases, as well
    1452 as peak shapes parameters either for broadening from either the sample or the instrument
    1453 (avoid both together), background fitting terms and one or two correction terms needed to describe
    1454 peak shifts due to apparent sample placement. In addition, there could be other
    1455 terms needed to describe additional experimental conditions such as for absorption,
    1456 preferred orientation or extinction. These parameters can be divided into four
    1457 categories: experimental (peak shapes, peak shifts and background), lattice parameters,
    1458 structural parameters (atom positions and U values) and intensity correction
    1459 terms (absorption, preferred orientation and extinction).<o:p></o:p></span></p>
     1135minor-latin'>In a Rietveld fit, a number of different items are fit,
     1136potentially at the same time. These include the lattice parameters, atomic positions
     1137and displacement (aka “temperature”, <span class=SpellE>U<sub>iso</sub></span>
     1138and <span class=SpellE>U<sub>ij</sub></span>) parameters for one or more
     1139phases, as well as peak shapes parameters either for broadening from either the
     1140sample or the instrument (avoid doing both together), background fitting terms
     1141and one or two correction terms needed to describe peak shifts due to apparent
     1142sample placement. In addition, there could be other terms needed to describe
     1143additional experimental conditions such as for absorption, preferred
     1144orientation or extinction. These parameters can be divided into four
     1145categories: experimental (peak shapes, peak shifts and background), lattice
     1146parameters, structural parameters (atom positions and U values) and intensity
     1147correction terms (absorption, preferred orientation and extinction).<o:p></o:p></span></p>
    14601148
    14611149<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-theme-font:
     
    14631151
    14641152<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-theme-font:
    1465 minor-latin'>In Rietveld, the reflection intensities are generated
    1466   from the structural and intensity correction parameters, but
    1467 there are two approaches to full-pattern fitting that treat
    1468 reflection intensities as arbitrary: (1) Pawley fitting, developed by Stuart Pawley
    1469 [Pawley, G. S. (1981). &quot;Unit-Cell Refinement from Powder Diffraction
    1470 Scans.&quot; Journal of Applied Crystallography 14: 357-361.], where peak
    1471 intensities are treated as least-squares variables. (2) Le Bail
    1472 fitting, from Armel Le Bail [Le Bail, A. (2005). &quot;Whole powder pattern decomposition methods
    1473 and applications: A retrospection.&quot; Powder Diffraction 20(4): 316-326.]
    1474 The Le Bail approach, demonstrated by this tutorial, takes advantage of the
    1475 fact that Hugo Rietveld developed a rather ingenious approach to estimating reflection
    1476 intensities: the idea behind this is that for every point in a pattern where one
    1477 or more reflections contribute, one can estimate the relative contribution from
    1478 each reflection from the structure factor magnitude, <span class=SpellE>F<sub>calc</sub></span>,
    1479 from the approximate crystal structure model, adjusted for reflection multiplicity
    1480 (<i>m</i>) and preferred orientation. Simply apportioning the observed powder
    1481 pattern intensities point by point to each reflection provides an estimate for
    1482 the observed structure factors, F<sub>obs</sub>. The quality of this estimate
    1483 improves as the crystal structure model approaches reality. Le Bail’s method
    1484 cleverly appropriates Rietveld’s intensity extraction, but assuming the crystal
    1485 structure model is unknown, sets all <span class=SpellE>F<sub>calc</sub></span>
    1486 values to 1. After the intensity extraction is performed, a set of F<sub>obs</sub>
    1487 values is obtained. These initially treat every F<sub>obs</sub>/<i>m</i> ratio
    1488 as equivalent and will not be very accurate, but they are much better reflection
    1489 estimates than the initial <span class=SpellE>F<sub>calc</sub></span> values (all
    1490 unity). The <span class=SpellE>F<sub>calc</sub></span> values are set to the
    1491 extracted F<sub>obs</sub> and the Le Bail fit can be repeated, giving even
    1492 better intensity estimates. This process is equivalent to a steepest descents
    1493 minimization and it will slowly converge to a self-consistent set of
    1494 intensities that will give best possible agreement to the observed
    1495 pattern. Note that the apportionment of intensity for reflections that are very
    1496 closely overlapped will tend to make their <span class=SpellE>F<sub>calc</sub></span>
    1497 values approximately equal. (Note that the Pawley approach will tend make <i>m</i>*F<sub>obs</sub>
    1498 values equal for complete reflection overlap; neither is likely to be accurate.)
    1499 <o:p></o:p></span></p>
     1153minor-latin'>In Rietveld, the reflection intensities are generated from the
     1154structural and intensity correction parameters, but there are two approaches to
     1155full-pattern fitting that treat reflection intensities as arbitrary: (1) Pawley
     1156fitting, developed by Stuart Pawley [Pawley, G. S. (1981). &quot;Unit-Cell
     1157Refinement from Powder Diffraction Scans.&quot; Journal of Applied
     1158Crystallography 14: 357-361.], where peak intensities are treated as
     1159least-squares variables. (2) Le Bail fitting, from Armel Le Bail [Le Bail, A.
     1160(2005). &quot;Whole powder pattern decomposition methods and applications: A
     1161retrospection.&quot; Powder Diffraction 20(4): 316-326.] The Le Bail approach,
     1162demonstrated by this tutorial, takes advantage of the fact that Hugo Rietveld
     1163developed a rather ingenious approach to estimating reflection intensities: the
     1164idea behind this is that for every point in a pattern where one or more
     1165reflections contribute, one can estimate the relative contribution from each
     1166reflection from the structure factor magnitude, F<sup>2</sup><sub>calc</sub>,
     1167from the approximate crystal structure model, adjusted for reflection
     1168multiplicity (<i>m</i>), preferred orientation and various other geometric
     1169corrections. Simply apportioning the observed powder pattern intensities point
     1170by point to each reflection provides an estimate for the observed structure
     1171factors, F<sup>2</sup><sub>obs</sub>. The quality of this estimate improves as
     1172the crystal structure model approaches reality. Le Bail’s method cleverly
     1173appropriates Rietveld’s intensity extraction, but assuming the crystal
     1174structure model is unknown, sets all F<sup>2</sup><sub>calc</sub> values to an
     1175initial value (e.g. 1.0). After the intensity extraction is performed, a set of
     1176F<sup>2</sup><sub>obs</sub> values is obtained. These initially treat every F<sup>2</sup><sub>obs</sub>/<i>m</i>
     1177ratio as equivalent and will not be very accurate, but they are much better
     1178reflection estimates than the initial F<sup>2</sup><sub>calc</sub> values (all
     1179unity). The F<sup>2</sup><sub>calc</sub> values are set to the extracted F<sup>2</sup><sub>obs</sub>
     1180and the Le Bail fit can be repeated, giving even better intensity estimates.
     1181This process is equivalent to a steepest descents minimization and it will converge
     1182to a self-consistent set of intensities that will give best possible agreement
     1183to the observed pattern. Note that the apportionment of intensity for
     1184reflections that are very closely overlapped will tend to make their F<sup>2</sup><sub>calc</sub>
     1185values approximately equal. (Note that the Pawley approach will tend make <i>m</i>*F<sup>2</sup><sub>obs</sub>
     1186values equal for complete reflection overlap; neither is likely to be
     1187accurate.) <o:p></o:p></span></p>
    15001188
    15011189<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-theme-font:
     
    15041192<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-theme-font:
    15051193minor-latin'>Note that when either Pawley or Le Bail intensity extraction are
    1506 used, all structural and intensity correction parameters no longer affect the intensity
    1507 computations. Such parameters should not be included in the fit. If included inadvertently,
    1508 GSAS-II will usually remove them from the fit along with providing annoying
    1509 warning messages, but it is possible that this parameter
    1510 removal process could fail and the refinement may not
    1511 run properly.</span></p>
     1194used, the structural and intensity correction parameters no longer affect the
     1195intensity computations. Such parameters should not be included in the fit as
     1196they will produce singularities in the refinement. If included inadvertently,
     1197GSAS-II will usually remove them from the fit along with providing annoying warning
     1198messages, but it is possible that this parameter removal process could fail and
     1199the refinement may not run properly.</span></p>
    15121200
    15131201<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-theme-font:
     
    15151203
    15161204<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-theme-font:
    1517 minor-latin'>
    1518 GSAS-II provides two ways to update Le Bail reflection
    1519 intensities. The Calculate/"Le Bail fit" menu command will perform
    1520 three intensity extraction cycles, but will not change any GSAS-II
    1521 parameters.
    1522 When the Calculate/Refine menu command is used,
    1523 least-squares minimization of experimental
    1524 and lattice parameters is alternated with Le Bail fitting.
    1525 Note that when first initiating
    1526 a Le Bail fit, the reflection intensities are very small
    1527 and fitting any lattice or peak width parameters is likely to diverge
    1528 and fail. Even background parameters may be affected by poor
    1529 reflection intensity estimates.
    1530 For this reason, it is best to allow
    1531 the reflection intensities to come near convergence using "Le Bail
    1532 fit" before refining any parameters with "Refine". Usually, it is only
    1533 necessary to do this at the beginning of a fit or if the Le Bail
    1534 intensity values are reset (do this by turning the extraction flag off
    1535 and then on again), but if parameters change significantly and the Le
    1536 Bail intensities are far from optimal, it is an excellent idea to
    1537 reconverge them with "Le Bail fit" again. 
    1538 </p>
     1205minor-latin'>After the LeBail option has been invoked, the Calculate/Refine
     1206menu command will execute a preliminary LeBail only “zero cycles” refinement in
     1207which only F<sup>2</sup><sub>obs</sub> is adjusted via the LeBail method. It is
     1208cycled 10 times or until a minimum is reached. After that completes, the
     1209Rietveld/LeBail refinement proceeds allowing least-squares minimization of
     1210non-intensity dependent parameters toward a more global fit to the data.
     1211Successive runs allowing other parameters to be varied can then be used to
     1212progressively improve the fit and produce a best estimate of the F<sup>2</sup><sub>obs</sub>.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
    15391213
    15401214<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-theme-font:
     
    15421216
    15431217<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-theme-font:
    1544 minor-latin'>
    1545 There are many reasons to use Le Bail fitting. The technique was
    1546 developed to obtain a set of reflection intensities for structure
    1547 solution.
    1548 It can also be used to treat an impurity, where lattice parameters are
    1549 known but the structural details are not or for fitting lattice
    1550 parameters where likewise the structure is not known. Le Bail fitting is also
    1551 useful prior to a structural fit. It allows determination of
    1552 reasonable starting values for the
    1553 background, peak shapes and unit cell parameters so they can be fixed
    1554 until the late stages of the refinement.
    1555 Another use is to see when artifacts in the background or peak shapes limit
    1556 how well the pattern can be fit. A Le Bail or Pawley fit provides an
    1557 estimate for the best possible <span class=SpellE>R<sub>wp</sub></span> and
    1558 reduced </span><span lang=EL style='mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-theme-font:
    1559 minor-latin;mso-ansi-language:EL'>&#967;</span><sup><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:
    1560 Calibri;mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin'>2</span></sup><span
     1218minor-latin'>There are many reasons to use Le Bail fitting. The technique was
     1219developed to obtain a set of reflection intensities for structure solution. It
     1220can also be used to treat an impurity, where lattice parameters are known but
     1221the structural details are not or for fitting lattice parameters where likewise
     1222the structure is not known. Le Bail fitting is also useful prior to a
     1223structural fit. It can allow determination of reasonable starting values for
     1224the background, peak shapes and unit cell parameters so they can be fixed until
     1225the late stages of the refinement, although the freedom in peak intensities may
     1226bias some parameters (e.g. background and profile coefficients) if there is a
     1227large number of overlapping reflections. Another use is to see when artifacts
     1228in the background or peak shapes limit how well the pattern can be fit. A Le Bail
     1229or Pawley fit provides an estimate for the best possible <span class=SpellE>R<sub>wp</sub></span>
     1230and reduced </span><span lang=EL style='mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;
     1231mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-ansi-language:EL'>&#967;</span><sup><span
     1232style='mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin'>2</span></sup><span
    15611233style='mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin'>
    1562 values that can be expected for a dataset. For complex patterns, where it is difficult
    1563 to discern where allowed reflections are present, comparison of Le Bail or
    1564 Pawley fits can provide insight on extinction conditions. A lower symmetry
    1565 space group with fewer extinctions should provide a better fit to warrant its
    1566 consideration.</span></p>
     1234values that can be expected for a dataset. For complex patterns, where it is
     1235difficult to discern where allowed reflections are present, comparison of Le
     1236Bail or Pawley fits can provide insight on extinction conditions. A lower
     1237symmetry space group with fewer extinctions should provide a better fit to
     1238warrant its consideration.</span></p>
    15671239
    15681240<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-theme-font:
     
    15711243<h1><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Prerequisite <o:p></o:p></span></h1>
    15721244
    1573 <p class=MsoNormal>In this exercise you we will use Le Bail fitting to extract approximate
    1574 reflection intensities. This is similar to what is done in the beginning of the
    1575 “Charge Flipping in GSAS-II - sucrose” tutorial, which uses Pawley fitting
    1576 instead. It follows logically from the third example in the “Fit
     1245<p class=MsoNormal>In this exercise you we will use Le Bail fitting to extract
     1246approximate reflection intensities. This is similar to what is done in the
     1247beginning of the “Charge Flipping in GSAS-II - sucrose” tutorial, which instead
     1248uses Pawley fitting. It follows logically from the third example in the “Fit
    15771249Peaks/Autoindexing in GSAS-II” tutorial, from where the sucrose unit cell was
    1578 determined. Alternately, a project (<span class=SpellE><span
    1579 style='font-family:Courier'>start.gpx</span></span>) file is provided
    1580 in the <A href="./data/" target="_blank">exercise files</a>
    1581 to start without the previous tutorial.</p>
    1582 
    1583 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
     1250determined. Alternately, a project (<span class=SpellE><span style='font-family:
     1251Courier'>start.gpx</span></span>) file is provided in the <a href="data/"
     1252target="_blank">exercise files</a> to start without the previous tutorial.</p>
    15841253
    15851254<h2>Step 1: Setup for fit</h2>
     
    15881257and creating the phase, make the the following changes:</p>
    15891258
    1590 <p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo15'><![if !supportLists]><span
     1259<p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2'><![if !supportLists]><span
    15911260style='font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
    1592 Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    1593 </span></span></span><![endif]><span dir=LTR></span><b>Controls</b>: Set the “Max
    1594 cycles” value to 5 </p>
    1595 
    1596 <p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo15'><![if !supportLists]><span
     1261Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1262</span></span></span><![endif]><b>Controls</b>: Set the “<b><span
     1263style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
     1264mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Max cycles</span></b>”
     1265value to 5 </p>
     1266
     1267<p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2'><![if !supportLists]><span
    15971268style='font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
    1598 Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    1599 </span></span></span><![endif]><span dir=LTR></span><b>Limits</b>: Raise the upper
    1600 data limit from 8 to 24 degrees</p>
    1601 
    1602 <p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo15'><![if !supportLists]><span
     1269Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1270</span></span></span><![endif]><b>Limits</b>: Raise the upper data limit from 8
     1271to <b><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
     1272mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>24</span></b>
     1273degrees</p>
     1274
     1275<p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2'><![if !supportLists]><span
    16031276style='font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
    1604 Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    1605 </span></span></span><![endif]><span dir=LTR></span><b>Background</b>: Add a background
    1606 peak at 5.5 deg with sigma=10,000, set the flag to refine the peak
    1607 intensity (window shown in Step 5, below)</p>
    1608 
    1609 <p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo15'><![if !supportLists]><span
     1277Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1278</span></span></span><![endif]><b>Background</b>: Add a background peak at <b><span
     1279style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
     1280mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>5.5</span></b>
     1281deg with sigma=<b><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
     1282minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>10,000</span></b>,
     1283set the flag to refine the peak intensity. This is to accommodate a broad peak
     1284in the background from the Kapton capillary used to hold the sucrose sample.</p>
     1285
     1286<p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2'><![if !supportLists]><span
    16101287style='font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
    1611 Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    1612 </span></span></span><![endif]><span dir=LTR></span><b>Instrument parameters</b>:
    1613 Use the Operations<span class=GramE>/“</span>Reset profile” menu command to
    1614 return to the beamline-supplied terms; turn off refinement of all terms</p>
    1615 
    1616 <p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo15'><![if !supportLists]><span
     1288Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1289</span></span></span><![endif]><b>Instrument parameters</b>: Use the <b><span
     1290style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
     1291mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Operations/Reset
     1292profile</span></b> menu command to return to the beamline-supplied terms; turn
     1293off refinement of all terms</p>
     1294
     1295<p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2'><![if !supportLists]><span
    16171296style='font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
    1618 Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    1619 </span></span></span><![endif]><span dir=LTR></span><b>Sample parameters</b>: turn
    1620 off refinement of the histogram scale factor</p>
    1621 
    1622 <p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo15'><![if !supportLists]><span
     1297Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1298</span></span></span><![endif]><b>Sample parameters</b>: turn off refinement of
     1299the <b><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
     1300mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>histogram
     1301scale factor</span></b> and make sure the goniometer radius is <b><span
     1302style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
     1303mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>1000</span></b>
     1304mm.</p>
     1305
     1306<p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2'><![if !supportLists]><span
    16231307style='font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
    1624 Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    1625 </span></span></span><![endif]><span dir=LTR></span><b>Phase Sucrose/Data tab</b>:
    1626 Use “Add powder histograms” to link this phase to the powder dataset; set the
    1627 refine flag on for the size term and the <span class=SpellE>microstrain</span>
     1308Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1309</span></span></span><![endif]><b>Phase Sucrose/Data tab</b>: Use <b><span
     1310style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
     1311mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Edit phase/Add
     1312powder histograms</span></b> to link this phase to the powder dataset; set the
     1313refine flag on for the <b><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
     1314mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:
     1315minor-latin'>size</span></b> term and the <span class=SpellE><b><span
     1316style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
     1317mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>microstrain</span></b></span>
    16281318term. </p>
    16291319
    1630 <p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo15'><![if !supportLists]><span
     1320<p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2'><![if !supportLists]><span
    16311321style='font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
    1632 Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    1633 </span></span></span><![endif]><span dir=LTR></span><b>Phase Sucrose/Atoms tab</b>:
    1634 Use “Edit Atoms”<span class=GramE>/“</span>Append atom” menu command to add an
    1635 atom to the structure. It does not matter what the atom type is or where it is
    1636 located, since the phase structure will not be used in the computation, but one
    1637 atom must be present for the phase to be created properly. </p>
    1638 
    1639 <p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo15'><![if !supportLists]><span
    1640 style='font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
    1641 Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    1642 </span></span></span><![endif]><span dir=LTR></span><b>Phase Sucrose/General
    1643 tab</b>: Set the “Refine the unit cell” flag.</p>
     1322Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1323</span></span></span><![endif]><b>Phase Sucrose/General tab</b>: Set the <b><span
     1324style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
     1325mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Refine unit
     1326cell</span></b> flag.</p>
    16441327
    16451328<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
    16461329
    16471330<p class=MsoNormal>These changes have been applied to a GSAS-II project file
    1648 from the conclusion of the 3rd Example within “Fit Peaks/Autoindexing in
    1649 GSAS-II” and is provided as for this tutorial as file <span class=SpellE><span
     1331from the conclusion of the 3rd Example within “<b><span style='font-family:
     1332"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:
     1333minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Fit Peaks/Autoindexing in GSAS-II</span></b>”
     1334tutorial and is provided as for this tutorial as file <span class=SpellE><span
    16501335style='font-family:Courier'>start.gpx</span></span>.</p>
    16511336
    1652 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
    1653 
    16541337<h2>Step 2: Select Le Bail fitting</h2>
    16551338
    1656 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
    1657 
    1658 <p class=MsoNormal>On the phase Data tab, select the “Do new Le Bail extraction”
    1659 option to put the refinement into Le Bail mode. </p>
     1339<p class=MsoNormal>On the phase Data tab, press the <b><span style='font-family:
     1340"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:
     1341minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Start Le Bail extraction?</span></b>
     1342button to put the refinement into Le Bail mode. </p>
    16601343
    16611344<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype
     
    16791362 <v:path o:extrusionok="f" gradientshapeok="t" o:connecttype="rect"/>
    16801363 <o:lock v:ext="edit" aspectratio="t"/>
    1681 </v:shapetype><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_50" o:spid="_x0000_i1034" type="#_x0000_t75"
    1682  alt="Graphical user interface, text, application&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"
    1683  style='width:6in;height:229pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
    1684  <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image005.png" o:title="Graphical user interface, text, application&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"/>
    1685 </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=432 height=229
    1686 src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image005.png"
    1687 alt="Graphical user interface, text, application&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"
    1688 v:shapes="Picture_x0020_50"><![endif]></span></p>
     1364</v:shapetype><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_11" o:spid="_x0000_i1039" type="#_x0000_t75"
     1365 alt="GSAS-II project: start.gpx" style='width:432.75pt;height:421.5pt;
     1366 visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
     1367 <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image001.png" o:title=" start"/>
     1368</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=577 height=562
     1369src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image003.png" alt="GSAS-II project: start.gpx" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_11"><![endif]></span></p>
     1370
     1371<p class=MsoNormal>The window will be redrawn with all intensity dependent
     1372variables removed from view</p>
     1373
     1374<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
     1375 id="Picture_x0020_12" o:spid="_x0000_i1038" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="GSAS-II project: start.gpx"
     1376 style='width:435pt;height:325.5pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
     1377 <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image004.png" o:title=" start"/>
     1378</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=580 height=434
     1379src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image006.png" alt="GSAS-II project: start.gpx" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_12"><![endif]></span></p>
     1380
     1381<p class=MsoNormal>and the LeBail button has changed to “Stop LeBail
     1382extraction?”.</p>
     1383
     1384<h2>Step 3: Do the initial Le Bail fit</h2>
     1385
     1386<p class=MsoNormal>Do the <b><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
     1387mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:
     1388minor-latin'>Calculate/Refine</span></b> menu command. A popup message will
     1389appear informing you that it will do the initial zero cycle LeBail fit of the
     1390intensities. </p>
     1391
     1392<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
     1393 id="Picture_x0020_13" o:spid="_x0000_i1037" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Le Bail Refinement"
     1394 style='width:274.5pt;height:99pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
     1395 <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image016.png" o:title="Le Bail Refinement"/>
     1396</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=366 height=132
     1397src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image016.png" alt="Le Bail Refinement" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_13"><![endif]></span></p>
     1398
     1399<p class=MsoNormal>press <b><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
     1400mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:
     1401minor-latin'>Ok</span></b>. The refinement will proceed and yield <span
     1402class=SpellE>Rwp</span> ~34%. The popup has an Ok and Cancel buttons. The plot
     1403has been updated with this fit. </p>
     1404
     1405<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
     1406 id="Picture_x0020_14" o:spid="_x0000_i1036" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="GSAS-II plots: start.gpx"
     1407 style='width:501.75pt;height:322.5pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
     1408 <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image013.png" o:title=" start"/>
     1409</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=669 height=430
     1410src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image007.png" alt="GSAS-II plots: start.gpx" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_14"><![endif]></span></p>
     1411
     1412<p class=MsoNormal>You should have a look to be sure that the peaks are in the
     1413right places and that some calculated intensity is present under them.
     1414Otherwise you should press Cancel &amp; adjust things as appropriate (e.g.
     1415lattice parameters). </p>
    16891416
    16901417<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
    16911418
    1692 <h2>Step 3: Perform an initial Le Bail-only fit</h2>
     1419<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
     1420 id="Picture_x0020_15" o:spid="_x0000_i1035" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Le Bail fit: Rwp=34.149"
     1421 style='width:274.5pt;height:117pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
     1422 <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image027.png" o:title=" Rwp=34"/>
     1423</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=366 height=156
     1424src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image027.png" alt="Le Bail fit: Rwp=34.149" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_15"><![endif]></span></p>
     1425
     1426<p class=MsoNormal>Press <b><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
     1427mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:
     1428minor-latin'>Ok</span></b> to save this &amp; proceed to the 1<sup>st</sup>
     1429full Rietveld/LeBail refinement. The next refinement will include those
     1430parameters you selected for a full Rietveld/LeBail refinement. The initial
     1431residual should be where the initial LeBail fit finished<span style='mso-no-proof:
     1432yes'>. </span>This will run through five cycles of Rietveld/Le Bail fitting and
     1433the residual will drop to <span class=SpellE>Rwp</span> ~12.6%</p>
     1434
     1435<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
     1436 id="Picture_x0020_17" o:spid="_x0000_i1034" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Refinement results, Rw =12.560"
     1437 style='width:274.5pt;height:177.75pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
     1438 <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image028.png" o:title="Refinement results, Rw =12"/>
     1439</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=366 height=237
     1440src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image028.png" alt="Refinement results, Rw =12.560"
     1441v:shapes="Picture_x0020_17"><![endif]></span></p>
     1442
     1443<p class=MsoNormal>and the fit will be much improved</p>
     1444
     1445<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
     1446 id="Picture_x0020_18" o:spid="_x0000_i1033" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="GSAS-II plots: start.gpx"
     1447 style='width:7in;height:324pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
     1448 <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image029.png" o:title=" start"/>
     1449</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=672 height=432
     1450src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image008.png" alt="GSAS-II plots: start.gpx" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_18"><![endif]></span></p>
     1451
     1452<p class=MsoNormal>Press <b><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
     1453mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:
     1454minor-latin'>OK</span></b> to accept these results. </p>
     1455
     1456<h2>Step 4: Add more parameters</h2>
     1457
     1458<p class=MsoNormal>Clearly, further improvement in the fit is desirable. Closely
     1459examining the fit shows issues with background, profile shape and peak
     1460positions.</p>
     1461
     1462<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
     1463 id="Picture_x0020_19" o:spid="_x0000_i1032" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="GSAS-II plots: start.gpx"
     1464 style='width:501.75pt;height:322.5pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
     1465 <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image031.png" o:title=" start"/>
     1466</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=669 height=430
     1467src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image009.png" alt="GSAS-II plots: start.gpx" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_19"><![endif]></span><span
     1468style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></p>
     1469
     1470<p class=MsoNormal>Plotting the (<span class=SpellE>obs-cal</span>)/sigma curve
     1471(press the <b><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
     1472minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>w</span></b>
     1473key) and enlarging it (use the crossed-arrows button and drag the right mouse
     1474button upwards inside the lower box), as shown above, shows that further
     1475background improvement might be expected with more background terms. </p>
     1476
     1477<p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo4'><![if !supportLists]><span
     1478style='font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
     1479Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1480</span></span></span><![endif]>Change to use <b><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
     1481mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:
     1482minor-latin'>6</span></b> chebyschev-1 parameters. </p>
     1483
     1484<p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo4'><![if !supportLists]><span
     1485style='font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
     1486Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1487</span></span></span><![endif]>Also refine <b><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
     1488mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:
     1489minor-latin'>sig</span></b> and <b><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
     1490mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:
     1491minor-latin'>pos</span></b> for the single background peak. </p>
     1492
     1493<p class=MsoNormal>The peak positions are probably offset from a sample
     1494position error (it is almost always present)</p>
     1495
     1496<p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo5'><![if !supportLists]><span
     1497style='font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
     1498Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1499</span></span></span><![endif]>Select <b><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
     1500mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:
     1501minor-latin'>Sample X <span class=SpellE>displ</span></span></b> in Sample
     1502Parameters </p>
     1503
     1504<p class=MsoNormal>The peak shape shows perhaps (in this case) inadequately
     1505determined instrumental U, V &amp; W parameters</p>
     1506
     1507<p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo5'><![if !supportLists]><span
     1508style='font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
     1509Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
     1510</span></span></span><![endif]>In Instrument Parameters select <b><span
     1511style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
     1512mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>U, V &amp; W</span></b>
     1513for refinement. </p>
    16931514
    16941515<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
    16951516
    1696 <p class=MsoNormal>Initiate a fit that improves only the Le Bail intensities
    1697 using the Calculate<span class=GramE>/“</span>Le Bail fit” menu
    1698 command.
    1699 (Note that control-B is a shortcut for this, except on the Mac where
    1700 the shortcut is <span style='font-family:"Cambria Math",serif;mso-fareast-font-family:
    1701 "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Cambria Math"'>&#8984;B).</span></p>
     1517<p class=MsoNormal>Do <b><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
     1518mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:
     1519minor-latin'>Calculate/Refine</span></b>; there will be a high residual for the
     1520initial steps but will quickly settle down to <span class=SpellE>Rwp</span> ~
     15216.0%</p>
     1522
     1523<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
     1524 id="Picture_x0020_21" o:spid="_x0000_i1031" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="GSAS-II plots: start.gpx"
     1525 style='width:7in;height:324pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
     1526 <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image033.png" o:title=" start"/>
     1527</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=672 height=432
     1528src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image010.png" alt="GSAS-II plots: start.gpx" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_21"><![endif]></span></p>
     1529
     1530<p class=MsoNormal>Pretty clearly, this sucrose sample gave an instrumental
     1531profile that was better than what the provided instrument parameter file
     1532indicated</p>
     1533
     1534<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
     1535 id="Picture_x0020_22" o:spid="_x0000_i1030" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="GSAS-II plots: start.gpx"
     1536 style='width:503.25pt;height:324pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
     1537 <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image035.png" o:title=" start"/>
     1538</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=671 height=432
     1539src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image011.png" alt="GSAS-II plots: start.gpx" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_22"><![endif]></span></p>
     1540
     1541<p class=MsoNormal>The solid line is from the default set of instrument
     1542parameters, the crosses are from the single peak fits done in the peak fitting
     1543tutorial and the dashed curve is from the results of this fit.</p>
     1544
     1545<h2>Step 5: Explore peak shape terms</h2>
     1546
     1547<p class=MsoNormal>At this point the fit is still poorer than what would be
     1548expected based on counting statistics (which would yield a reduced <span
     1549lang=EL style='mso-ansi-language:EL'>&#967;</span><sup>2</sup> value close to 1.)
     1550Looking closely at the data and computed pattern, as shown below for example,
     1551leads one to believe that the profile is still not being well-fit.</p>
     1552
     1553<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
     1554 id="Picture_x0020_23" o:spid="_x0000_i1029" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="GSAS-II plots: start.gpx"
     1555 style='width:503.25pt;height:324pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
     1556 <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image037.png" o:title=" start"/>
     1557</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=671 height=432
     1558src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image012.png" alt="GSAS-II plots: start.gpx" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_23"><![endif]></span></p>
     1559
     1560<p class=MsoNormal>A Le Bail fit provides a good way to explore different peak
     1561shape broadening options. Moreover, if the intended use of the extracted
     1562structure factors is structure solution, then one wants the best LeBail fit
     1563possible. Investigation of a number of models for anisotropic peak broadening
     1564finds that the <span class=SpellE>R<sub>wp</sub></span> can be reduced to 5.23%,
     1565through use of the Popa/Stephens model for <span class=SpellE>microstrain</span>
     1566(refining 9 terms in the generalized mustrain model), with a plausible <span
     1567class=SpellE>microstrain</span> directional plot, as below. A fit that uses
     1568fewer terms that is almost as good uses uniaxial crystallite domain size
     1569broadening along the 010 axis and uniaxial <span class=SpellE>microstrain</span>
     1570broadening along the 010 axis, my residual was <span class=SpellE>R<sub>wp</sub></span>
     1571= 5.38%. This adds 2 only parameters. We will continue with the isotropic size
     1572and generalized mustrain models; my final <span class=SpellE>R<sub>wp</sub></span>
     1573after several sets of LeBail/Rietveld refinement was <span class=SpellE>R<sub>wp</sub></span>
     1574= 5.197%.</p>
    17021575
    17031576<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
    17041577
     1578<p class=MsoNormal><b><i>The important result here is that this sample exhibit
     1579non-ideal broadening artifacts. This could be due to milling of the sucrose
     1580during manufacture creating defects that cannot be well-fit with a conventional
     1581peak shape. From this fit, it is now clear that best possible fit to be
     1582expected from any structural model will have a <span class=SpellE>R<sub>wp</sub></span>
     1583on the order of 5% and a reduced </i></b><b><i><span lang=EL style='mso-ansi-language:
     1584EL'>&#967;</span><sup>2</sup> value on the order of 1.5, since no crystal
     1585structure model could give a better intensity fit than a Le Bail or Pawley fit.
     1586<o:p></o:p></i></b></p>
     1587
    17051588<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
    1706  id="Picture_x0020_44" o:spid="_x0000_i1033" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Graphical user interface, text, application, chat or text message&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"
    1707  style='width:279pt;height:147pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
    1708  <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image002.png" o:title="Graphical user interface, text, application, chat or text message&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"/>
    1709 </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=279 height=147
    1710 src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image002.png"
    1711 alt="Graphical user interface, text, application, chat or text message&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"
    1712 v:shapes="Picture_x0020_44"><![endif]></span></p>
     1589 id="Picture_x0020_24" o:spid="_x0000_i1028" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="GSAS-II plots: start.gpx"
     1590 style='width:505.5pt;height:510.75pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
     1591 <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image015.png" o:title=" start"/>
     1592</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=674 height=681
     1593src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image017.png" alt="GSAS-II plots: start.gpx" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_24"><![endif]></span></p>
     1594
     1595<h2>Step 6. Resetting the LeBail extracted intensities</h2>
     1596
     1597<p class=MsoNormal>A perhaps further improvement in the extracted structure factors
     1598with the aim of using then in structure solution can be obtained by
     1599reinitializing the LeBail extraction using the now better parameter set. Go to
     1600the Data tab.</p>
     1601
     1602<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
     1603 id="Picture_x0020_25" o:spid="_x0000_i1027" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="GSAS-II project: start.gpx"
     1604 style='width:508.5pt;height:430.5pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
     1605 <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image018.png" o:title=" start"/>
     1606</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=678 height=574
     1607src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image019.png" alt="GSAS-II project: start.gpx" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_25"><![endif]></span></p>
     1608
     1609<p class=MsoNormal>Notice the message on the righthand status line; to reset
     1610the LeBail intensities, “cycle” the Le Bail button. Press <b><span
     1611style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
     1612mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Stop Le Bail
     1613extraction</span></b> (NB: this will set the refinement into normal Rietveld mode
     1614– impossible because the model contains no atoms!). The window will be redrawn
     1615to include the intensity dependent parameters. Now press it again (<b><span
     1616style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
     1617mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Start Le bail
     1618extraction?</span></b>). The window will be redrawn again. The next refinement
     1619will start with new initial structure factor values (=1.0) and will do the
     1620preliminary “zero cycle” Le Bail refinement. You may leave the refinement
     1621parameters alone. The refinement will start out high (Rwp~67%) but will quickly
     1622drop to ~5.7% because all the other parameters are near their optimal values.</p>
     1623
     1624<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
     1625 id="Picture_x0020_26" o:spid="_x0000_i1026" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Le Bail fit: Rwp=5.756"
     1626 style='width:274.5pt;height:117pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
     1627 <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image020.png" o:title=" Rwp=5"/>
     1628</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=366 height=156
     1629src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image020.png" alt="Le Bail fit: Rwp=5.756" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_26"><![endif]></span></p>
     1630
     1631<p class=MsoNormal>Press <b><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
     1632mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:
     1633minor-latin'>OK</span></b> to continue with the Rietveld/LeBail part of the
     1634refinement; a popup will show the status of this part.</p>
     1635
     1636<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
     1637 id="Picture_x0020_27" o:spid="_x0000_i1025" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Refinement results, Rw =5.469"
     1638 style='width:274.5pt;height:177.75pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
     1639 <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image021.png" o:title="Refinement results, Rw =5"/>
     1640</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=366 height=237
     1641src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image021.png" alt="Refinement results, Rw =5.469"
     1642v:shapes="Picture_x0020_27"><![endif]></span></p>
     1643
     1644<p class=MsoNormal>Press <b><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
     1645mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:
     1646minor-latin'>OK</span></b>. Set the number of cycles to <b><span
     1647style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
     1648mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>20</span></b>
     1649and repeat <b><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
     1650minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Calculate/Refine</span></b>
     1651until the fit has converged (it may take several repeats as this part of a Le
     1652Bail refinement does converge slowly). I got <span class=SpellE>Rwp</span> =
     16535.26% when I quit recycling the refinement. You can now use these extracted
     1654intensities to see if they can be used for a charge flipping structure solution
     1655(I did get it to work once – otherwise many failures).</p>
    17131656
    17141657<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
    17151658
    1716 <p class=MsoNormal>This will run through three cycles of Le Bail
    1717 fitting. <B><I>This will only optimize the intensities of reflections. No
    1718 other parameter values will be optimized until Step 5, when a least
    1719 squares fit is done.</I></B>
    1720 After one use, a fairly reasonable fit is obtained, as shown below. </p>
    1721 
    1722 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
    1723 
    1724 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
    1725  id="Picture_x0020_52" o:spid="_x0000_i1032" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Graphical user interface&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"
    1726  style='width:8in;height:378pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
    1727  <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image006.png" o:title="Graphical user interface&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"/>
    1728 </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=576 height=378
    1729 src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image006.png"
    1730 alt="Graphical user interface&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"
    1731 v:shapes="Picture_x0020_52"><![endif]></span></p>
    1732 
    1733 <p class=MsoNormal>Press OK to accept these results. </p>
    1734 
    1735 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
    1736 
    1737 <h2>Step 4: Perform additional Le Bail-only fits</h2>
    1738 
    1739 <p class=MsoNormal>The Le Bail intensities can be further fit using the Calculate<span
    1740 class=GramE>/“</span>Le Bail fit” menu command again. The fit improves very
    1741 slightly, as shown below. </p>
    1742 
    1743 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
    1744 
    1745 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
    1746  id="Picture_x0020_53" o:spid="_x0000_i1031" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Graphical user interface, timeline&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"
    1747  style='width:8in;height:376pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
    1748  <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image007.png" o:title="Graphical user interface, timeline&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"/>
    1749 </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=576 height=376
    1750 src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image007.png"
    1751 alt="Graphical user interface, timeline&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"
    1752 v:shapes="Picture_x0020_53"><![endif]></span></p>
    1753 
    1754 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
    1755 
    1756 <p class=MsoNormal>Since the improvement is so small, there is little value in running
    1757 this again (though there is also no harm in doing this). In other projects, it may
    1758 be necessary to perform this step more than twice before the fit no longer
    1759 improves significantly. Here, any improvement to the fit will require
    1760 refinement of the
    1761 the <span style='mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin'>experimental
    1762 and lattice parameters, which is done via least-squares fitting. </span></p>
    1763 
    1764 <h2>Step 5: Combined Le Bail/Least Squares fit</h2>
    1765 
    1766 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1767 mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1768 mso-hansi-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1769 mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi'>In the instructions for Step 1, refinement
    1770 flags were set for three background terms, the intensity value for a single background
    1771 peak, a sample broadening term and a <span class=SpellE>microstrain</span>
    1772 broadening term plus four lattice parameters (10 parameters in total). This can
    1773 be verified using the Calculate<span class=GramE>/“</span>View LS parameters” menu
    1774 command (shortcut: control-L or </span><span style='font-family:"Cambria Math",serif;
    1775 mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Cambria Math"'>&#8984;</span><span
    1776 style='mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;
    1777 mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1778 mso-hansi-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1779 mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi'>L). <o:p></o:p></span></p>
    1780 
    1781 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1782 mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1783 mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-theme-font:major-bidi;
    1784 mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
    1785 
    1786 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1787 mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1788 mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-theme-font:major-bidi;
    1789 mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi'>All that
    1790 is needed </span><span style='mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1791 mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1792 mso-hansi-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1793 mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi'>at this stage</span><span style='mso-ascii-font-family:
    1794 "Times New Roman";mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1795 mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-theme-font:major-bidi;
    1796 mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi'> to perform
    1797 a combined Le Bail/Least Squares fit is to use the </span><span
    1798 style='mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;
    1799 mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-theme-font:major-bidi;
    1800 mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi'>Calculate/Refine
    1801 menu command.</span><span style='mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1802 mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1803 mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-theme-font:major-bidi;
    1804 mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi'><o:p></o:p></span></p>
    1805 
    1806 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1807 mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1808 mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-theme-font:major-bidi;
    1809 mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
    1810 
    1811 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1812 mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1813 mso-hansi-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1814 mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
    1815  id="Picture_x0020_54" o:spid="_x0000_i1030" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Graphical user interface, application, Word&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"
    1816  style='width:472pt;height:235pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
    1817  <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image008.png" o:title="Graphical user interface, application, Word&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"/>
    1818 </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=472 height=235
    1819 src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image008.png"
    1820 alt="Graphical user interface, application, Word&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"
    1821 v:shapes="Picture_x0020_54"><![endif]></span><span style='mso-ascii-font-family:
    1822 "Times New Roman";mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1823 mso-hansi-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1824 mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi'><o:p></o:p></span></p>
    1825 
    1826 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1827 mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1828 mso-hansi-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1829 mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
    1830 
    1831 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1832 mso-ascii-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1833 mso-hansi-theme-font:major-bidi;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
    1834 mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi'>The refinement progresses well and a much
    1835 better, though far from perfect, fit is obtained. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
    1836 
    1837 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
    1838 
    1839 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
    1840  id="Picture_x0020_55" o:spid="_x0000_i1029" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Graphical user interface, timeline&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"
    1841  style='width:577pt;height:376pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
    1842  <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image009.png" o:title="Graphical user interface, timeline&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"/>
    1843 </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=577 height=376
    1844 src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image009.png"
    1845 alt="Graphical user interface, timeline&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"
    1846 v:shapes="Picture_x0020_55"><![endif]></span></p>
    1847 
    1848 <h2>Step 6: Add more parameters</h2>
    1849 
    1850 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
    1851  id="Picture_x0020_56" o:spid="_x0000_i1028" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Chart&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"
    1852  style='width:634pt;height:220pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
    1853  <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image010.png" o:title="Chart&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"/>
    1854 </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=634 height=220
    1855 src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image010.png"
    1856 alt="Chart&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_56"><![endif]></span><span
    1857 style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></p>
    1858 
    1859 <p class=MsoNormal>Plotting the (<span
    1860 class=SpellE>obs-cal</span>)/sigma curve (press the w key)
    1861 and enlarging it (use the crossed-arrows button and drag the right mouse button
    1862 upwards inside the lower box), as shown above, shows that further background improvement might
    1863 be expected with more background terms. </p>
    1864 
    1865 <p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l7 level1 lfo16'><![if !supportLists]><span
    1866 style='font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
    1867 Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    1868 </span></span></span><![endif]><span dir=LTR></span>Change to use 6 chebyschev-1
    1869 peaks. </p>
    1870 
    1871 <p class=MsoListParagraph style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l7 level1 lfo16'><![if !supportLists]><span
    1872 style='font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
    1873 Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>·<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
    1874 </span></span></span><![endif]><span dir=LTR></span>Also refine sig for the
    1875 single background peak. <o:p></o:p></p>
    1876 
    1877 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
    1878 
    1879 <p class=MsoNormal>Repeating "Refine" improves the fit somewhat, as shown below. </p>
    1880 
    1881 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
    1882 
    1883 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
    1884  id="Picture_x0020_57" o:spid="_x0000_i1027" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Graphical user interface&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"
    1885  style='width:8in;height:375pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
    1886  <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image011.png" o:title="Graphical user interface&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"/>
    1887 </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=576 height=375
    1888 src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image011.png"
    1889 alt="Graphical user interface&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"
    1890 v:shapes="Picture_x0020_57"><![endif]></span></p>
    1891 
    1892 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
    1893 
    1894 <h2>Step 7: Explore peak shape terms<o:p></o:p></h2>
    1895 
    1896 <p class=MsoNormal>At this point the fit is still far from what would be
    1897 expected based on counting statistics (which would yield a reduced <span
    1898 lang=EL style='mso-ansi-language:EL'>&#967;</span><sup>2</sup> value close to
    1899 1.) Looking closely at the data and computed pattern, as shown below for
    1900 example, leads one to believe that the profile is still not being well-fit.</p>
    1901 
    1902 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
    1903  id="Picture_x0020_58" o:spid="_x0000_i1026" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Graphical user interface&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"
    1904  style='width:577pt;height:335pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
    1905  <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image012.png" o:title="Graphical user interface&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"
    1906   croptop="8315f" cropbottom="11209f" cropleft="7261f" cropright="3949f"/>
    1907 </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=577 height=335
    1908 src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image013.png"
    1909 alt="Graphical user interface&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"
    1910 v:shapes="Picture_x0020_58"><![endif]></span></p>
    1911 
    1912 <p class=MsoNormal>A Le Bail fit provides a good way to explore different
    1913 peak shape broadening options. Investigation of a number of models for
    1914 anisotropic peak broadening finds that the <span class=SpellE>R<sub>wp</sub></span> can be
    1915 reduced just a bit, to 11.9%, through use of the Stephens model for <span
    1916 class=SpellE>microstrain</span> (refining 9 terms in the Generalized <span
    1917 class=SpellE>Mustrain</span> model), with a plausible <span class=SpellE>microstrain</span>
    1918 directional plot, as below. Considering that 8 more terms have been added
    1919 to the refinement, this is a fairly minor improvement, which many would
    1920 say is not worthwhile. A fit that uses
    1921 fewer terms and is almost as good uses uniaxial crystallite
    1922 domain size broadening along
    1923 the 001 axis and uniaxial <span class=SpellE>microstrain</span> broadening
    1924 along the 010 axis. This adds 2 only parameters. <o:p></o:p></p>
    1925 
    1926 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
    1927 
    1928 <p class=MsoNormal><b><i>The important result here is that <span class=GramE>this
    1929 sample exhibits</span> non-ideal broadening artifacts. This could be due to
    1930 milling of the sucrose during manufacture creating defects that cannot
    1931 be well-fit with a conventional peak shape. From this fit, it is now
    1932 clear that best possible fit to be expected from any structural
    1933 model will have a <span class=SpellE>R<sub>wp</sub></span> on the order of 12% and a reduced
    1934 </i></b><b><i><span lang=EL style='mso-ansi-language:EL'>&#967;</span><sup>2</sup>
    1935 value on the order of 11.8, since no crystal structure model could
    1936 give a better intensity fit than a Le Bail or Pawley fit. <o:p></o:p></i></b></p>
    1937 
    1938 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
    1939  id="Picture_x0020_59" o:spid="_x0000_i1025" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Chart, bubble chart&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"
    1940  style='width:349pt;height:303pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
    1941  <v:imagedata src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image014.png" o:title="Chart, bubble chart&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated"/>
    1942 </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=349 height=303
    1943 src="LeBailSucrose.fld/image014.png"
    1944 alt="Chart, bubble chart&#10;&#10;Description automatically generated" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_59"><![endif]></span></p>
    1945 
    1946 <p class=MsoNormal>This completes this exercise.</p>
    1947 
    19481659</div>
    19491660
Note: See TracChangeset for help on using the changeset viewer.