source: Tutorials/StackingFaults-I/Stacking Faults-I.htm @ 2248

Last change on this file since 2248 was 2248, checked in by vondreele, 6 years ago

Add Stacking Faults-I tutorial

File size: 108.7 KB
Line 
1<html xmlns:v="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml"
2xmlns:o="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office"
3xmlns:w="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:word"
4xmlns:m="http://schemas.microsoft.com/office/2004/12/omml"
5xmlns="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40">
6
7<head>
8<meta http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; charset=windows-1252">
9<meta name=ProgId content=Word.Document>
10<meta name=Generator content="Microsoft Word 15">
11<meta name=Originator content="Microsoft Word 15">
12<link rel=File-List href="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/filelist.xml">
13<link rel=Edit-Time-Data href="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/editdata.mso">
14<!--[if !mso]>
15<style>
16v\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
17o\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
18w\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
19.shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
20</style>
21<![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml>
22 <o:DocumentProperties>
23  <o:Author>Von Dreele</o:Author>
24  <o:LastAuthor>Von Dreele</o:LastAuthor>
25  <o:Revision>11</o:Revision>
26  <o:TotalTime>465</o:TotalTime>
27  <o:Created>2016-05-10T16:31:00Z</o:Created>
28  <o:LastSaved>2016-05-11T17:31:00Z</o:LastSaved>
29  <o:Pages>22</o:Pages>
30  <o:Words>2049</o:Words>
31  <o:Characters>11683</o:Characters>
32  <o:Lines>97</o:Lines>
33  <o:Paragraphs>27</o:Paragraphs>
34  <o:CharactersWithSpaces>13705</o:CharactersWithSpaces>
35  <o:Version>15.00</o:Version>
36 </o:DocumentProperties>
37</xml><![endif]-->
38<link rel=dataStoreItem href="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/item0066.xml"
39target="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/props067.xml">
40<link rel=themeData href="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/themedata.thmx">
41<link rel=colorSchemeMapping
42href="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/colorschememapping.xml">
43<!--[if gte mso 9]><xml>
44 <w:WordDocument>
45  <w:View>Print</w:View>
46  <w:SpellingState>Clean</w:SpellingState>
47  <w:GrammarState>Clean</w:GrammarState>
48  <w:TrackMoves>false</w:TrackMoves>
49  <w:TrackFormatting/>
50  <w:PunctuationKerning/>
51  <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/>
52  <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>
53  <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent>
54  <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>
55  <w:DoNotPromoteQF/>
56  <w:LidThemeOther>EN-US</w:LidThemeOther>
57  <w:LidThemeAsian>X-NONE</w:LidThemeAsian>
58  <w:LidThemeComplexScript>X-NONE</w:LidThemeComplexScript>
59  <w:Compatibility>
60   <w:BreakWrappedTables/>
61   <w:SnapToGridInCell/>
62   <w:WrapTextWithPunct/>
63   <w:UseAsianBreakRules/>
64   <w:DontGrowAutofit/>
65   <w:SplitPgBreakAndParaMark/>
66   <w:DontVertAlignCellWithSp/>
67   <w:DontBreakConstrainedForcedTables/>
68   <w:DontVertAlignInTxbx/>
69   <w:Word11KerningPairs/>
70   <w:CachedColBalance/>
71  </w:Compatibility>
72  <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel>
73  <m:mathPr>
74   <m:mathFont m:val="Cambria Math"/>
75   <m:brkBin m:val="before"/>
76   <m:brkBinSub m:val="&#45;-"/>
77   <m:smallFrac m:val="off"/>
78   <m:dispDef/>
79   <m:lMargin m:val="0"/>
80   <m:rMargin m:val="0"/>
81   <m:defJc m:val="centerGroup"/>
82   <m:wrapIndent m:val="1440"/>
83   <m:intLim m:val="subSup"/>
84   <m:naryLim m:val="undOvr"/>
85  </m:mathPr></w:WordDocument>
86</xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml>
87 <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" DefUnhideWhenUsed="false"
88  DefSemiHidden="false" DefQFormat="false" DefPriority="99"
89  LatentStyleCount="371">
90  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="0" QFormat="true" Name="Normal"/>
91  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 1"/>
92  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true"
93   UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 2"/>
94  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true"
95   UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 3"/>
96  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true"
97   UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 4"/>
98  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true"
99   UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 5"/>
100  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true"
101   UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 6"/>
102  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true"
103   UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 7"/>
104  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true"
105   UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 8"/>
106  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="true"
107   UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="heading 9"/>
108  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
109   Name="index 1"/>
110  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
111   Name="index 2"/>
112  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
113   Name="index 3"/>
114  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
115   Name="index 4"/>
116  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
117   Name="index 5"/>
118  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
119   Name="index 6"/>
120  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
121   Name="index 7"/>
122  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
123   Name="index 8"/>
124  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
125   Name="index 9"/>
126  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true"
127   UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 1"/>
128  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true"
129   UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 2"/>
130  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true"
131   UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 3"/>
132  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true"
133   UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 4"/>
134  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true"
135   UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 5"/>
136  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true"
137   UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 6"/>
138  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true"
139   UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 7"/>
140  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true"
141   UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 8"/>
142  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true"
143   UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="toc 9"/>
144  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
145   Name="Normal Indent"/>
146  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
147   Name="footnote text"/>
148  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
149   Name="annotation text"/>
150  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
151   Name="header"/>
152  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
153   Name="footer"/>
154  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
155   Name="index heading"/>
156  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="35" SemiHidden="true"
157   UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="caption"/>
158  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
159   Name="table of figures"/>
160  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
161   Name="envelope address"/>
162  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
163   Name="envelope return"/>
164  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
165   Name="footnote reference"/>
166  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
167   Name="annotation reference"/>
168  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
169   Name="line number"/>
170  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
171   Name="page number"/>
172  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
173   Name="endnote reference"/>
174  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
175   Name="endnote text"/>
176  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
177   Name="table of authorities"/>
178  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
179   Name="macro"/>
180  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
181   Name="toa heading"/>
182  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
183   Name="List"/>
184  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
185   Name="List Bullet"/>
186  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
187   Name="List Number"/>
188  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
189   Name="List 2"/>
190  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
191   Name="List 3"/>
192  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
193   Name="List 4"/>
194  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
195   Name="List 5"/>
196  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
197   Name="List Bullet 2"/>
198  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
199   Name="List Bullet 3"/>
200  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
201   Name="List Bullet 4"/>
202  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
203   Name="List Bullet 5"/>
204  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
205   Name="List Number 2"/>
206  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
207   Name="List Number 3"/>
208  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
209   Name="List Number 4"/>
210  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
211   Name="List Number 5"/>
212  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="10" QFormat="true" Name="Title"/>
213  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
214   Name="Closing"/>
215  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
216   Name="Signature"/>
217  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="1" SemiHidden="true"
218   UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Default Paragraph Font"/>
219  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
220   Name="Body Text"/>
221  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
222   Name="Body Text Indent"/>
223  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
224   Name="List Continue"/>
225  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
226   Name="List Continue 2"/>
227  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
228   Name="List Continue 3"/>
229  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
230   Name="List Continue 4"/>
231  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
232   Name="List Continue 5"/>
233  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
234   Name="Message Header"/>
235  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="11" QFormat="true" Name="Subtitle"/>
236  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
237   Name="Salutation"/>
238  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
239   Name="Date"/>
240  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
241   Name="Body Text First Indent"/>
242  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
243   Name="Body Text First Indent 2"/>
244  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
245   Name="Note Heading"/>
246  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
247   Name="Body Text 2"/>
248  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
249   Name="Body Text 3"/>
250  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
251   Name="Body Text Indent 2"/>
252  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
253   Name="Body Text Indent 3"/>
254  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
255   Name="Block Text"/>
256  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
257   Name="Hyperlink"/>
258  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
259   Name="FollowedHyperlink"/>
260  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="22" QFormat="true" Name="Strong"/>
261  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="20" QFormat="true" Name="Emphasis"/>
262  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
263   Name="Document Map"/>
264  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
265   Name="Plain Text"/>
266  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
267   Name="E-mail Signature"/>
268  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
269   Name="HTML Top of Form"/>
270  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
271   Name="HTML Bottom of Form"/>
272  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
273   Name="Normal (Web)"/>
274  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
275   Name="HTML Acronym"/>
276  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
277   Name="HTML Address"/>
278  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
279   Name="HTML Cite"/>
280  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
281   Name="HTML Code"/>
282  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
283   Name="HTML Definition"/>
284  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
285   Name="HTML Keyboard"/>
286  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
287   Name="HTML Preformatted"/>
288  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
289   Name="HTML Sample"/>
290  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
291   Name="HTML Typewriter"/>
292  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
293   Name="HTML Variable"/>
294  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
295   Name="Normal Table"/>
296  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
297   Name="annotation subject"/>
298  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
299   Name="No List"/>
300  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
301   Name="Outline List 1"/>
302  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
303   Name="Outline List 2"/>
304  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
305   Name="Outline List 3"/>
306  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
307   Name="Table Simple 1"/>
308  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
309   Name="Table Simple 2"/>
310  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
311   Name="Table Simple 3"/>
312  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
313   Name="Table Classic 1"/>
314  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
315   Name="Table Classic 2"/>
316  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
317   Name="Table Classic 3"/>
318  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
319   Name="Table Classic 4"/>
320  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
321   Name="Table Colorful 1"/>
322  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
323   Name="Table Colorful 2"/>
324  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
325   Name="Table Colorful 3"/>
326  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
327   Name="Table Columns 1"/>
328  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
329   Name="Table Columns 2"/>
330  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
331   Name="Table Columns 3"/>
332  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
333   Name="Table Columns 4"/>
334  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
335   Name="Table Columns 5"/>
336  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
337   Name="Table Grid 1"/>
338  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
339   Name="Table Grid 2"/>
340  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
341   Name="Table Grid 3"/>
342  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
343   Name="Table Grid 4"/>
344  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
345   Name="Table Grid 5"/>
346  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
347   Name="Table Grid 6"/>
348  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
349   Name="Table Grid 7"/>
350  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
351   Name="Table Grid 8"/>
352  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
353   Name="Table List 1"/>
354  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
355   Name="Table List 2"/>
356  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
357   Name="Table List 3"/>
358  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
359   Name="Table List 4"/>
360  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
361   Name="Table List 5"/>
362  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
363   Name="Table List 6"/>
364  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
365   Name="Table List 7"/>
366  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
367   Name="Table List 8"/>
368  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
369   Name="Table 3D effects 1"/>
370  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
371   Name="Table 3D effects 2"/>
372  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
373   Name="Table 3D effects 3"/>
374  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
375   Name="Table Contemporary"/>
376  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
377   Name="Table Elegant"/>
378  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
379   Name="Table Professional"/>
380  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
381   Name="Table Subtle 1"/>
382  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
383   Name="Table Subtle 2"/>
384  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
385   Name="Table Web 1"/>
386  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
387   Name="Table Web 2"/>
388  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
389   Name="Table Web 3"/>
390  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
391   Name="Balloon Text"/>
392  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="59" Name="Table Grid"/>
393  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" UnhideWhenUsed="true"
394   Name="Table Theme"/>
395  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" Name="Placeholder Text"/>
396  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="1" QFormat="true" Name="No Spacing"/>
397  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading"/>
398  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List"/>
399  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid"/>
400  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1"/>
401  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2"/>
402  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1"/>
403  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2"/>
404  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1"/>
405  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2"/>
406  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3"/>
407  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List"/>
408  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading"/>
409  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List"/>
410  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid"/>
411  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading Accent 1"/>
412  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List Accent 1"/>
413  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid Accent 1"/>
414  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 1"/>
415  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 1"/>
416  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 1"/>
417  <w:LsdException Locked="false" SemiHidden="true" Name="Revision"/>
418  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="34" QFormat="true"
419   Name="List Paragraph"/>
420  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="29" QFormat="true" Name="Quote"/>
421  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="30" QFormat="true"
422   Name="Intense Quote"/>
423  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 1"/>
424  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 1"/>
425  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 1"/>
426  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 1"/>
427  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List Accent 1"/>
428  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 1"/>
429  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List Accent 1"/>
430  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 1"/>
431  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading Accent 2"/>
432  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List Accent 2"/>
433  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid Accent 2"/>
434  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 2"/>
435  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 2"/>
436  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 2"/>
437  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 2"/>
438  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 2"/>
439  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 2"/>
440  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 2"/>
441  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List Accent 2"/>
442  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 2"/>
443  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List Accent 2"/>
444  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 2"/>
445  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading Accent 3"/>
446  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List Accent 3"/>
447  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid Accent 3"/>
448  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 3"/>
449  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 3"/>
450  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 3"/>
451  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 3"/>
452  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 3"/>
453  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 3"/>
454  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 3"/>
455  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List Accent 3"/>
456  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 3"/>
457  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List Accent 3"/>
458  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 3"/>
459  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading Accent 4"/>
460  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List Accent 4"/>
461  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid Accent 4"/>
462  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 4"/>
463  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 4"/>
464  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 4"/>
465  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 4"/>
466  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 4"/>
467  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 4"/>
468  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 4"/>
469  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List Accent 4"/>
470  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 4"/>
471  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List Accent 4"/>
472  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 4"/>
473  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading Accent 5"/>
474  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List Accent 5"/>
475  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid Accent 5"/>
476  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 5"/>
477  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 5"/>
478  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 5"/>
479  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 5"/>
480  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 5"/>
481  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 5"/>
482  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 5"/>
483  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List Accent 5"/>
484  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 5"/>
485  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List Accent 5"/>
486  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 5"/>
487  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" Name="Light Shading Accent 6"/>
488  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" Name="Light List Accent 6"/>
489  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" Name="Light Grid Accent 6"/>
490  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 6"/>
491  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 6"/>
492  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 6"/>
493  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 6"/>
494  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 6"/>
495  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 6"/>
496  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 6"/>
497  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" Name="Dark List Accent 6"/>
498  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 6"/>
499  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" Name="Colorful List Accent 6"/>
500  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 6"/>
501  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="19" QFormat="true"
502   Name="Subtle Emphasis"/>
503  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="21" QFormat="true"
504   Name="Intense Emphasis"/>
505  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="31" QFormat="true"
506   Name="Subtle Reference"/>
507  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="32" QFormat="true"
508   Name="Intense Reference"/>
509  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="33" QFormat="true" Name="Book Title"/>
510  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="37" SemiHidden="true"
511   UnhideWhenUsed="true" Name="Bibliography"/>
512  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" SemiHidden="true"
513   UnhideWhenUsed="true" QFormat="true" Name="TOC Heading"/>
514  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="41" Name="Plain Table 1"/>
515  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="42" Name="Plain Table 2"/>
516  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="43" Name="Plain Table 3"/>
517  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="44" Name="Plain Table 4"/>
518  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="45" Name="Plain Table 5"/>
519  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="40" Name="Grid Table Light"/>
520  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="Grid Table 1 Light"/>
521  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2"/>
522  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3"/>
523  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4"/>
524  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark"/>
525  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful"/>
526  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful"/>
527  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46"
528   Name="Grid Table 1 Light Accent 1"/>
529  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2 Accent 1"/>
530  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3 Accent 1"/>
531  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4 Accent 1"/>
532  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark Accent 1"/>
533  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51"
534   Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful Accent 1"/>
535  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52"
536   Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful Accent 1"/>
537  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46"
538   Name="Grid Table 1 Light Accent 2"/>
539  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2 Accent 2"/>
540  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3 Accent 2"/>
541  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4 Accent 2"/>
542  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark Accent 2"/>
543  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51"
544   Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful Accent 2"/>
545  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52"
546   Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful Accent 2"/>
547  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46"
548   Name="Grid Table 1 Light Accent 3"/>
549  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2 Accent 3"/>
550  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3 Accent 3"/>
551  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4 Accent 3"/>
552  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark Accent 3"/>
553  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51"
554   Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful Accent 3"/>
555  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52"
556   Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful Accent 3"/>
557  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46"
558   Name="Grid Table 1 Light Accent 4"/>
559  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2 Accent 4"/>
560  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3 Accent 4"/>
561  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4 Accent 4"/>
562  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark Accent 4"/>
563  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51"
564   Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful Accent 4"/>
565  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52"
566   Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful Accent 4"/>
567  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46"
568   Name="Grid Table 1 Light Accent 5"/>
569  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2 Accent 5"/>
570  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3 Accent 5"/>
571  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4 Accent 5"/>
572  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark Accent 5"/>
573  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51"
574   Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful Accent 5"/>
575  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52"
576   Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful Accent 5"/>
577  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46"
578   Name="Grid Table 1 Light Accent 6"/>
579  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="Grid Table 2 Accent 6"/>
580  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="Grid Table 3 Accent 6"/>
581  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="Grid Table 4 Accent 6"/>
582  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="Grid Table 5 Dark Accent 6"/>
583  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51"
584   Name="Grid Table 6 Colorful Accent 6"/>
585  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52"
586   Name="Grid Table 7 Colorful Accent 6"/>
587  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46" Name="List Table 1 Light"/>
588  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2"/>
589  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3"/>
590  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4"/>
591  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark"/>
592  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51" Name="List Table 6 Colorful"/>
593  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52" Name="List Table 7 Colorful"/>
594  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46"
595   Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 1"/>
596  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 1"/>
597  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 1"/>
598  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 1"/>
599  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 1"/>
600  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51"
601   Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 1"/>
602  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52"
603   Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 1"/>
604  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46"
605   Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 2"/>
606  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 2"/>
607  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 2"/>
608  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 2"/>
609  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 2"/>
610  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51"
611   Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 2"/>
612  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52"
613   Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 2"/>
614  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46"
615   Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 3"/>
616  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 3"/>
617  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 3"/>
618  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 3"/>
619  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 3"/>
620  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51"
621   Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 3"/>
622  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52"
623   Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 3"/>
624  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46"
625   Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 4"/>
626  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 4"/>
627  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 4"/>
628  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 4"/>
629  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 4"/>
630  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51"
631   Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 4"/>
632  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52"
633   Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 4"/>
634  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46"
635   Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 5"/>
636  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 5"/>
637  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 5"/>
638  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 5"/>
639  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 5"/>
640  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51"
641   Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 5"/>
642  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52"
643   Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 5"/>
644  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="46"
645   Name="List Table 1 Light Accent 6"/>
646  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="47" Name="List Table 2 Accent 6"/>
647  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="48" Name="List Table 3 Accent 6"/>
648  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="49" Name="List Table 4 Accent 6"/>
649  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="50" Name="List Table 5 Dark Accent 6"/>
650  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="51"
651   Name="List Table 6 Colorful Accent 6"/>
652  <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="52"
653   Name="List Table 7 Colorful Accent 6"/>
654 </w:LatentStyles>
655</xml><![endif]-->
656<style>
657<!--
658 /* Font Definitions */
659 @font-face
660        {font-family:"Cambria Math";
661        panose-1:2 4 5 3 5 4 6 3 2 4;
662        mso-font-charset:0;
663        mso-generic-font-family:roman;
664        mso-font-pitch:variable;
665        mso-font-signature:-536870145 1107305727 0 0 415 0;}
666@font-face
667        {font-family:Calibri;
668        panose-1:2 15 5 2 2 2 4 3 2 4;
669        mso-font-charset:0;
670        mso-generic-font-family:swiss;
671        mso-font-pitch:variable;
672        mso-font-signature:-536870145 1073786111 1 0 415 0;}
673@font-face
674        {font-family:Tahoma;
675        panose-1:2 11 6 4 3 5 4 4 2 4;
676        mso-font-charset:0;
677        mso-generic-font-family:swiss;
678        mso-font-pitch:variable;
679        mso-font-signature:-520081665 -1073717157 41 0 66047 0;}
680 /* Style Definitions */
681 p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal
682        {mso-style-unhide:no;
683        mso-style-qformat:yes;
684        mso-style-parent:"";
685        margin:0in;
686        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
687        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
688        font-size:12.0pt;
689        font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;
690        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
691        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;}
692h1
693        {mso-style-priority:9;
694        mso-style-unhide:no;
695        mso-style-qformat:yes;
696        mso-style-link:"Heading 1 Char";
697        mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
698        margin-right:0in;
699        mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
700        margin-left:0in;
701        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
702        mso-outline-level:1;
703        font-size:24.0pt;
704        font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;
705        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
706        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
707        font-weight:bold;}
708h2
709        {mso-style-priority:9;
710        mso-style-qformat:yes;
711        mso-style-link:"Heading 2 Char";
712        mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
713        margin-right:0in;
714        mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
715        margin-left:0in;
716        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
717        mso-outline-level:2;
718        font-size:18.0pt;
719        font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;
720        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
721        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
722        font-weight:bold;}
723h3
724        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
725        mso-style-priority:9;
726        mso-style-qformat:yes;
727        mso-style-link:"Heading 3 Char";
728        mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
729        margin-right:0in;
730        mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
731        margin-left:0in;
732        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
733        mso-outline-level:3;
734        font-size:13.5pt;
735        font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;
736        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
737        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
738        font-weight:bold;}
739h4
740        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
741        mso-style-priority:9;
742        mso-style-qformat:yes;
743        mso-style-link:"Heading 4 Char";
744        mso-style-next:Normal;
745        margin-top:10.0pt;
746        margin-right:0in;
747        margin-bottom:0in;
748        margin-left:0in;
749        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
750        mso-pagination:widow-orphan lines-together;
751        page-break-after:avoid;
752        mso-outline-level:4;
753        font-size:13.0pt;
754        font-family:"Cambria",serif;
755        mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria;
756        mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin;
757        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
758        mso-fareast-theme-font:major-fareast;
759        mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria;
760        mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;
761        mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
762        mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi;
763        color:#4F81BD;
764        mso-themecolor:accent1;
765        font-weight:bold;
766        font-style:italic;}
767h5
768        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
769        mso-style-priority:9;
770        mso-style-qformat:yes;
771        mso-style-link:"Heading 5 Char";
772        mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
773        margin-right:0in;
774        mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
775        margin-left:0in;
776        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
777        mso-outline-level:5;
778        font-size:12.0pt;
779        font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;
780        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
781        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
782        color:#4F4FFF;
783        font-weight:bold;}
784a:link, span.MsoHyperlink
785        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
786        mso-style-priority:99;
787        color:blue;
788        text-decoration:underline;
789        text-underline:single;}
790a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed
791        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
792        mso-style-priority:99;
793        color:purple;
794        text-decoration:underline;
795        text-underline:single;}
796p.MsoDocumentMap, li.MsoDocumentMap, div.MsoDocumentMap
797        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
798        mso-style-priority:99;
799        mso-style-link:"Document Map Char";
800        margin:0in;
801        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
802        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
803        font-size:8.0pt;
804        font-family:"Tahoma",sans-serif;
805        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
806        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;}
807p
808        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
809        mso-style-priority:99;
810        mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
811        margin-right:0in;
812        mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
813        margin-left:0in;
814        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
815        font-size:12.0pt;
816        font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;
817        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
818        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;}
819pre
820        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
821        mso-style-priority:99;
822        mso-style-link:"HTML Preformatted Char";
823        margin:0in;
824        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
825        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
826        tab-stops:45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt;
827        font-size:10.0pt;
828        font-family:"Courier New";
829        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";}
830p.MsoAcetate, li.MsoAcetate, div.MsoAcetate
831        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
832        mso-style-priority:99;
833        mso-style-link:"Balloon Text Char";
834        margin:0in;
835        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
836        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
837        font-size:8.0pt;
838        font-family:"Tahoma",sans-serif;
839        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
840        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;}
841span.MsoPlaceholderText
842        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
843        mso-style-priority:99;
844        mso-style-unhide:no;
845        color:gray;}
846p.MsoNoSpacing, li.MsoNoSpacing, div.MsoNoSpacing
847        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
848        mso-style-priority:1;
849        mso-style-unhide:no;
850        mso-style-qformat:yes;
851        mso-style-parent:"";
852        margin:0in;
853        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
854        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
855        font-size:12.0pt;
856        font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;
857        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
858        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;}
859p.MsoListParagraph, li.MsoListParagraph, div.MsoListParagraph
860        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
861        mso-style-priority:34;
862        mso-style-unhide:no;
863        mso-style-qformat:yes;
864        margin-top:0in;
865        margin-right:0in;
866        margin-bottom:0in;
867        margin-left:.5in;
868        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
869        mso-add-space:auto;
870        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
871        font-size:12.0pt;
872        font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;
873        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
874        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;}
875p.MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst, li.MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst, div.MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst
876        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
877        mso-style-priority:34;
878        mso-style-unhide:no;
879        mso-style-qformat:yes;
880        mso-style-type:export-only;
881        margin-top:0in;
882        margin-right:0in;
883        margin-bottom:0in;
884        margin-left:.5in;
885        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
886        mso-add-space:auto;
887        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
888        font-size:12.0pt;
889        font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;
890        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
891        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;}
892p.MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle, li.MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle, div.MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle
893        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
894        mso-style-priority:34;
895        mso-style-unhide:no;
896        mso-style-qformat:yes;
897        mso-style-type:export-only;
898        margin-top:0in;
899        margin-right:0in;
900        margin-bottom:0in;
901        margin-left:.5in;
902        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
903        mso-add-space:auto;
904        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
905        font-size:12.0pt;
906        font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;
907        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
908        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;}
909p.MsoListParagraphCxSpLast, li.MsoListParagraphCxSpLast, div.MsoListParagraphCxSpLast
910        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
911        mso-style-priority:34;
912        mso-style-unhide:no;
913        mso-style-qformat:yes;
914        mso-style-type:export-only;
915        margin-top:0in;
916        margin-right:0in;
917        margin-bottom:0in;
918        margin-left:.5in;
919        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
920        mso-add-space:auto;
921        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
922        font-size:12.0pt;
923        font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;
924        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
925        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;}
926span.MsoIntenseReference
927        {mso-style-priority:32;
928        mso-style-unhide:no;
929        mso-style-qformat:yes;
930        font-variant:small-caps;
931        color:#C0504D;
932        mso-themecolor:accent2;
933        letter-spacing:.25pt;
934        font-weight:bold;
935        text-decoration:underline;
936        text-underline:single;}
937span.Heading1Char
938        {mso-style-name:"Heading 1 Char";
939        mso-style-priority:9;
940        mso-style-unhide:no;
941        mso-style-locked:yes;
942        mso-style-link:"Heading 1";
943        mso-ansi-font-size:24.0pt;
944        mso-bidi-font-size:24.0pt;
945        font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;
946        mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";
947        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
948        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
949        mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
950        mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
951        mso-font-kerning:18.0pt;
952        font-weight:bold;}
953span.Heading2Char
954        {mso-style-name:"Heading 2 Char";
955        mso-style-priority:9;
956        mso-style-unhide:no;
957        mso-style-locked:yes;
958        mso-style-link:"Heading 2";
959        mso-ansi-font-size:18.0pt;
960        mso-bidi-font-size:18.0pt;
961        font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;
962        mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";
963        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
964        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
965        mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
966        mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
967        font-weight:bold;}
968span.Heading3Char
969        {mso-style-name:"Heading 3 Char";
970        mso-style-noshow:yes;
971        mso-style-priority:9;
972        mso-style-unhide:no;
973        mso-style-locked:yes;
974        mso-style-link:"Heading 3";
975        mso-ansi-font-size:13.5pt;
976        mso-bidi-font-size:13.5pt;
977        font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;
978        mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";
979        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
980        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
981        mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
982        mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
983        font-weight:bold;}
984span.Heading4Char
985        {mso-style-name:"Heading 4 Char";
986        mso-style-noshow:yes;
987        mso-style-priority:9;
988        mso-style-unhide:no;
989        mso-style-locked:yes;
990        mso-style-link:"Heading 4";
991        mso-ansi-font-size:13.0pt;
992        mso-bidi-font-size:13.0pt;
993        font-family:"Cambria",serif;
994        mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria;
995        mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin;
996        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
997        mso-fareast-theme-font:major-fareast;
998        mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria;
999        mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;
1000        mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
1001        mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi;
1002        color:#4F81BD;
1003        mso-themecolor:accent1;
1004        font-weight:bold;
1005        font-style:italic;}
1006span.Heading5Char
1007        {mso-style-name:"Heading 5 Char";
1008        mso-style-noshow:yes;
1009        mso-style-priority:9;
1010        mso-style-unhide:no;
1011        mso-style-locked:yes;
1012        mso-style-link:"Heading 5";
1013        mso-ansi-font-size:12.0pt;
1014        mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;
1015        font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;
1016        mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";
1017        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
1018        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
1019        mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
1020        mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
1021        color:#4F4FFF;
1022        font-weight:bold;}
1023span.HTMLPreformattedChar
1024        {mso-style-name:"HTML Preformatted Char";
1025        mso-style-noshow:yes;
1026        mso-style-priority:99;
1027        mso-style-unhide:no;
1028        mso-style-locked:yes;
1029        mso-style-link:"HTML Preformatted";
1030        mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt;
1031        mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;
1032        font-family:"Courier New";
1033        mso-ascii-font-family:"Courier New";
1034        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
1035        mso-hansi-font-family:"Courier New";
1036        mso-bidi-font-family:"Courier New";}
1037span.DocumentMapChar
1038        {mso-style-name:"Document Map Char";
1039        mso-style-noshow:yes;
1040        mso-style-priority:99;
1041        mso-style-unhide:no;
1042        mso-style-locked:yes;
1043        mso-style-link:"Document Map";
1044        mso-ansi-font-size:8.0pt;
1045        mso-bidi-font-size:8.0pt;
1046        font-family:"Tahoma",sans-serif;
1047        mso-ascii-font-family:Tahoma;
1048        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
1049        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
1050        mso-hansi-font-family:Tahoma;
1051        mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma;}
1052span.BalloonTextChar
1053        {mso-style-name:"Balloon Text Char";
1054        mso-style-noshow:yes;
1055        mso-style-priority:99;
1056        mso-style-unhide:no;
1057        mso-style-locked:yes;
1058        mso-style-link:"Balloon Text";
1059        mso-ansi-font-size:8.0pt;
1060        mso-bidi-font-size:8.0pt;
1061        font-family:"Tahoma",sans-serif;
1062        mso-ascii-font-family:Tahoma;
1063        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
1064        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
1065        mso-hansi-font-family:Tahoma;
1066        mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma;}
1067span.GSAS-IItextChar
1068        {mso-style-name:"GSAS-II text Char";
1069        mso-style-unhide:no;
1070        mso-style-locked:yes;
1071        mso-style-link:"GSAS-II text";
1072        mso-ansi-font-size:12.0pt;
1073        mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;
1074        font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;
1075        mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";
1076        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
1077        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
1078        mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
1079        mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;
1080        mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin;
1081        font-weight:bold;
1082        mso-bidi-font-weight:normal;}
1083p.GSAS-IItext, li.GSAS-IItext, div.GSAS-IItext
1084        {mso-style-name:"GSAS-II text";
1085        mso-style-noshow:yes;
1086        mso-style-priority:99;
1087        mso-style-unhide:no;
1088        mso-style-link:"GSAS-II text Char";
1089        margin:0in;
1090        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
1091        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
1092        font-size:12.0pt;
1093        font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1094        mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;
1095        mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1096        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
1097        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
1098        mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;
1099        mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;
1100        mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;
1101        mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin;
1102        font-weight:bold;
1103        mso-bidi-font-weight:normal;}
1104span.SpellE
1105        {mso-style-name:"";
1106        mso-spl-e:yes;}
1107span.GramE
1108        {mso-style-name:"";
1109        mso-gram-e:yes;}
1110.MsoChpDefault
1111        {mso-style-type:export-only;
1112        mso-default-props:yes;
1113        font-size:10.0pt;
1114        mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt;
1115        mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;
1116        font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1117        mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;
1118        mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1119        mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;
1120        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin;
1121        mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;
1122        mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;
1123        mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
1124        mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}
1125@page WordSection1
1126        {size:8.5in 11.0in;
1127        margin:1.0in 1.0in 1.0in 1.0in;
1128        mso-header-margin:.5in;
1129        mso-footer-margin:.5in;
1130        mso-paper-source:0;}
1131div.WordSection1
1132        {page:WordSection1;}
1133-->
1134</style>
1135<!--[if gte mso 10]>
1136<style>
1137 /* Style Definitions */
1138 table.MsoNormalTable
1139        {mso-style-name:"Table Normal";
1140        mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0;
1141        mso-tstyle-colband-size:0;
1142        mso-style-noshow:yes;
1143        mso-style-priority:99;
1144        mso-style-parent:"";
1145        mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;
1146        mso-para-margin:0in;
1147        mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;
1148        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
1149        font-size:10.0pt;
1150        font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1151        mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;
1152        mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1153        mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;
1154        mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}
1155table.MsoTableGrid
1156        {mso-style-name:"Table Grid";
1157        mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0;
1158        mso-tstyle-colband-size:0;
1159        mso-style-priority:59;
1160        mso-style-unhide:no;
1161        border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1162        mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
1163        mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;
1164        mso-border-insideh:.5pt solid windowtext;
1165        mso-border-insidev:.5pt solid windowtext;
1166        mso-para-margin:0in;
1167        mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;
1168        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
1169        font-size:10.0pt;
1170        font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1171        mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;
1172        mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1173        mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;
1174        mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}
1175</style>
1176<![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml>
1177 <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="1026"/>
1178</xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml>
1179 <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit">
1180  <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/>
1181 </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]-->
1182</head>
1183
1184<body lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval:.5in'>
1185
1186<div class=WordSection1>
1187
1188<h1>Stacking Fault Simulations – I</h1>
1189
1190<p class=MsoNormal>In this exercise you will use GSAS-II to simulate the
1191diffraction patterns from faulted diamond. Diamond most commonly has the
1192well-known cubic structure with the space group Fd3m and a=3.5668A. The C-atom
1193is at 1/8<span class=GramE>,1</span>/8,1/8 and can be viewed as a cubic
1194stacking of ruffled hexagonal nets along the cubic cell 111 diagonal. </p>
1195
1196<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype
1197 id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t"
1198 path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f">
1199 <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/>
1200 <v:formulas>
1201  <v:f eqn="if lineDrawn pixelLineWidth 0"/>
1202  <v:f eqn="sum @0 1 0"/>
1203  <v:f eqn="sum 0 0 @1"/>
1204  <v:f eqn="prod @2 1 2"/>
1205  <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelWidth"/>
1206  <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelHeight"/>
1207  <v:f eqn="sum @0 0 1"/>
1208  <v:f eqn="prod @6 1 2"/>
1209  <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelWidth"/>
1210  <v:f eqn="sum @8 21600 0"/>
1211  <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelHeight"/>
1212  <v:f eqn="sum @10 21600 0"/>
1213 </v:formulas>
1214 <v:path o:extrusionok="f" gradientshapeok="t" o:connecttype="rect"/>
1215 <o:lock v:ext="edit" aspectratio="t"/>
1216</v:shapetype><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_1" o:spid="_x0000_i1052" type="#_x0000_t75"
1217 style='width:361.5pt;height:270.75pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1218 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image001.jpg" o:title=""/>
1219</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=482 height=361
1220src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image002.jpg" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_1"><![endif]></span></p>
1221
1222<p class=MsoNormal>The structure of lonsdaleite has those layers stacked
1223hexagonally and thus a faulted diamond structure may occasionally have
1224hexagonal stacked layers instead of all cubic ones. From geometric
1225considerations, these planar stacking faults must extend across the entire
1226crystal. If there are only a few such faults in a crystal then the diffraction
1227pattern will show two cubic diamond patterns in a twin law relationship.
1228Otherwise, if there are many such faults then the diffraction pattern will show
1229streaks. To simulate the streaks one must first develop a model for the
1230hexagonal net of C-atoms and then show how they stack in either the cubic or
1231hexagonal forms. GSAS-II uses a suite of subroutines from the <span
1232class=SpellE>DIFFaX</span> program (M.M.J. <span class=SpellE>Treacy</span>,
1233J.M. <span class=SpellE>Newsam</span> &amp; M.W. Deem, (1991), Proc. Roy. Soc. <span
1234class=SpellE>Lond</span>. 433A, 499-520) to calculate the diffraction pattern
1235via a general recursion algorithm and a randomized set of stacked layers. NB:
1236this calculation can be quite time consuming particularly if unreasonable
1237demands are made on it. </p>
1238
1239<p class=MsoNormal>If you have not done so already, start GSAS-II.</p>
1240
1241<h2>Simulation 1. Selected area diffraction for random faults in diamond</h2>
1242
1243<p class=MsoNormal>To begin we must have a phase to work with. In the main
1244GSAS-II data tree menu do <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1245style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1246mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Data/Add new phase</span></b>; a popup window
1247will appear inviting you to name the phase. I entered <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1248normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
1249minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>‘random faults</span></b>’. Then
1250find this phase in the data tree under phases and select it; the data window
1251will display the default for the General tab.</p>
1252
1253<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1254 id="Picture_x0020_2" o:spid="_x0000_i1051" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:465pt;
1255 height:250.5pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1256 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image003.png" o:title=""/>
1257</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=620 height=334
1258src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image004.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_2"><![endif]></span></p>
1259
1260<p class=MsoNormal>Change the phase type to ‘<b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1261normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
1262minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>faulted</span></b>’; the window
1263will be redrawn and a new tab (‘<b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1264style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1265mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Layers</span></b>’) will appear. Select it.
1266Then save the project; I called it ‘<b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1267style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1268mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>diamond</span></b>’.</p>
1269
1270<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1271 id="Picture_x0020_3" o:spid="_x0000_i1050" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468pt;
1272 height:277.5pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1273 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image005.png" o:title=""/>
1274</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=624 height=370
1275src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image006.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_3"><![endif]></span></p>
1276
1277<p class=MsoNormal>First you need to describe the reference unit cell for the
1278stacking model. The cubic/hexagonal stacking in diamond is with layers
1279perpendicular to the 111 axis. This will become the new c-axis. The a- &amp;
1280b-axes are for the hexagonal net of C-atoms that are stacked in this structure.
1281One can also anticipate that the resulting diffraction pattern will have
1282hexagonal <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1283mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>6/mmm</span></b>
1284symmetry so first select this from the pull down box neat the top of the page;
1285the window will be redrawn.</p>
1286
1287<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1288 id="Picture_x0020_4" o:spid="_x0000_i1049" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468pt;
1289 height:348pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1290 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image007.png" o:title=""/>
1291</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=624 height=464
1292src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image008.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_4"><![endif]></span></p>
1293
1294<p class=MsoNormal><span class=GramE>The a</span> cell parameter for diamond
1295stacking can be assumed to be a<!--[if gte msEquation 12]><m:oMath><i
1296 style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:"Cambria Math",serif'><m:r>/&#8730;2</m:r></span></i></m:oMath><![endif]--><![if !msEquation]><span
1297style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;mso-fareast-font-family:
1298"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;position:relative;
1299top:3.0pt;mso-text-raise:-3.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:
1300EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1025"
1301 type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:20.25pt;height:15.75pt'>
1302 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image009.png" o:title=""
1303  chromakey="white"/>
1304</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=27 height=21
1305src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image010.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1025"><![endif]></span><![endif]><span
1306style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>= <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1307style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1308mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>2.522</span></b> and the c cell parameter is
1309a<!--[if gte msEquation 12]><m:oMath><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span
1310 style='font-family:"Cambria Math",serif'><m:r>/&#8730;3</m:r></span></i></m:oMath><![endif]--><![if !msEquation]><span
1311style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;mso-fareast-font-family:
1312"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;position:relative;
1313top:3.0pt;mso-text-raise:-3.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:
1314EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1025"
1315 type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:20.25pt;height:15.75pt'>
1316 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image011.png" o:title=""
1317  chromakey="white"/>
1318</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=27 height=21
1319src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image012.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1025"><![endif]></span><![endif]><span
1320style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>= <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1321style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1322mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>2.059</span></b> since there are 3 layers
1323along the 111 diamond cell diagonal. Enter these in the appropriate places; the
1324cell volume will be revised.</p>
1325
1326<p class=MsoNormal>Now we have to describe the two hexagonal nets that will be
1327stacked for either cubic or hexagonal stacking. Select <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1328normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
1329minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Add new layer?</span></b> <span
1330class=GramE>the</span> window will be redrawn.</p>
1331
1332<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1333 id="Picture_x0020_5" o:spid="_x0000_i1048" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468pt;
1334 height:359.25pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1335 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image013.png" o:title=""/>
1336</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=624 height=479
1337src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image014.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_5"><![endif]></span></p>
1338
1339<p class=MsoNormal>Name the layer (I chose ‘<b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1340normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
1341minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>layer 1</span></b>’) and choose <b
1342style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1343mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>‘-1</span></b>’
1344for the layer symmetry. The window will be redrawn after changing the name.
1345Next, select <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:
1346"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:
1347minor-latin'>Add atom?</span></b> <span class=GramE>and</span> the window will
1348be redrawn with one line in the layer table.</p>
1349
1350<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1351 id="Picture_x0020_6" o:spid="_x0000_i1047" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468pt;
1352 height:359.25pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1353 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image015.png" o:title=""/>
1354</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=624 height=479
1355src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image016.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_6"><![endif]></span></p>
1356
1357<p class=MsoNormal>To make this a C-atom select the ‘<span class=SpellE><b
1358style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1359mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Unk</span></b></span>’
1360under Type with a double click; a Periodic table will popup. Select <b
1361style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1362mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>C</span></b>;
1363the popup will disappear and the window will be redrawn. The coordinates of
1364this C-atom in the new stacking unit cell is <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1365normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
1366minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>-1/3,-1/6,-1/8</span></b>; you
1367may enter these as fractions. Select a table item to complete the entry; the
1368window should show the new position.</p>
1369
1370<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1371 id="Picture_x0020_8" o:spid="_x0000_i1046" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468pt;
1372 height:359.25pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1373 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image017.png" o:title=""/>
1374</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=624 height=479
1375src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image018.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_8"><![endif]></span></p>
1376
1377<p class=MsoNormal>You can draw the layer to see what it looks like; select <b
1378style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1379mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Draw layer?</span></b>
1380<span class=GramE>and</span> the drawing will appear.<span style='mso-no-proof:
1381yes'> <!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_10" o:spid="_x0000_i1045"
1382 type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:364.5pt;height:272.25pt;visibility:visible;
1383 mso-wrap-style:square'>
1384 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image019.jpg" o:title=""/>
1385</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=486 height=363
1386src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image020.jpg" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_10"><![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></p>
1387
1388<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'>A unit cell box is drawn with
1389a 5x5 suite of unit cells; the ruffled hexagonal net perpendicular to the
1390c-axis (blue line) is clear.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
1391
1392<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'>Now we need a second layer;
1393repeat the steps for making a layer using </span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1394normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
1395minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-no-proof:yes'>1/3,1/6,-1/8</span></b><span
1396style='mso-no-proof:yes'> for the C-atom position with </span><b
1397style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1398mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-no-proof:
1399yes'>-1</span></b><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'> for the layer symmetry. The
1400window should look like this when done.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
1401
1402<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1403 id="Picture_x0020_11" o:spid="_x0000_i1044" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468pt;
1404 height:468pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1405 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image021.png" o:title=""/>
1406</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=624 height=624
1407src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image022.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_11"><![endif]></span></p>
1408
1409<p class=MsoNormal>I’ve stretched it a bit to show the Layer-Layer transition
1410probabilities. Change <span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1411style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1412mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Dz</span></b></span> for each entry to <b
1413style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1414mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>1.0</span></b>
1415to properly space out the stacked layers. If you select the first box in the
1416plot column for layer 1 you will see the two layers stacked but in a way
1417reminiscent of how carbon sheets stack in graphite. </p>
1418
1419<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1420 id="Picture_x0020_12" o:spid="_x0000_i1043" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:359.25pt;
1421 height:268.5pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1422 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image023.jpg" o:title=""/>
1423</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=479 height=358
1424src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image024.jpg" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_12"><![endif]></span></p>
1425
1426<p class=MsoNormal>Clearly not diamond stacking. The table defines how the next
1427layer is displaced relative to the reference layer. You can shift this layer by
1428using the <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1429mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>X<span
1430class=GramE>,Y,Z</span></span></b> &amp; <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1431style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1432mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>shift-X,Y,Z</span></b> keys; the plot will be
1433redrawn and the table entry updated each time you shift the layer. When you get
1434to the right offset for diamond additional bonds will appear connecting the
1435layers together. The correct shift is <span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1436normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
1437minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Dx</span></b></span><b
1438style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1439mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>=2/3</span></b>,
1440<span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1441style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1442mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Dy</span></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1443normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
1444minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>=1/3</span></b> and <span
1445class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:
1446"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:
1447minor-latin'>Dz</span></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1448style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1449mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>=1.0</span></b> for the layer 1 to layer 1
1450transition and for layer 2 to layer 2 the shifts are <span class=SpellE><b
1451style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1452mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Dx</span></b></span><b
1453style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1454mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>=-2/3</span></b>,
1455<span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1456style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1457mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Dy</span></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1458normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
1459minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>=-1/3</span></b> and <span
1460class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:
1461"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:
1462minor-latin'>Dz</span></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1463style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1464mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>=1.0</span></b>. For the remaining layer
14651-layer 2 and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>vice versa</i> transitions <span
1466class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:
1467"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:
1468minor-latin'>Dx</span></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1469style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1470mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>=<span class=SpellE>Dy</span>=0</span></b>.
1471Layer 1 to layer 1 stacking looks like.</p>
1472
1473<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1474 id="Picture_x0020_13" o:spid="_x0000_i1042" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:357.75pt;
1475 height:267.75pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1476 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image025.jpg" o:title=""/>
1477</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=477 height=357
1478src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image026.jpg" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_13"><![endif]></span></p>
1479
1480<p class=MsoNormal>You can explore the result of various stacking sequences in
1481the next block of commands; enter <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1482style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1483mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2</span></b> into the box and
1484press <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1485mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Enter</span></b>.
1486A plot showing the result of a single twin fault will be shown.</p>
1487
1488<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1489 id="Picture_x0020_14" o:spid="_x0000_i1041" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:362.25pt;
1490 height:270.75pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1491 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image027.jpg" o:title=""/>
1492</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=483 height=361
1493src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image028.jpg" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_14"><![endif]></span></p>
1494
1495<p class=MsoNormal>If you enter 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 then the structure of
1496lonsdaleite will be shown; 1 1 1 1 1 1 or 2 2 2 2 2 2 gives the diamond
1497structure. </p>
1498
1499<p class=MsoNormal>Finally we must select transition probabilities; they should
1500sum to 1.0 for each block. Use <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1501style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1502mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>0.7</span></b> for layer 1 to layer 1 and
1503layer 2 to layer 2; the cross terms are then <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1504normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
1505minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>0.3</span></b> to give</p>
1506
1507<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1508 id="Picture_x0020_15" o:spid="_x0000_i1040" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468pt;
1509 height:336pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1510 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image029.png" o:title=""/>
1511</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=624 height=448
1512src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image030.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_15"><![endif]></span></p>
1513
1514<p class=MsoNormal>We are now ready to do a single crystal simulation; select <b
1515style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1516mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Operations/Simulate
1517pattern</span></b> from the Phase data window menu. A small popup will appear</p>
1518
1519<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1520 id="Picture_x0020_16" o:spid="_x0000_i1039" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:209.25pt;
1521 height:102pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1522 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image031.png" o:title=""/>
1523</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=279 height=136
1524src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image032.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_16"><![endif]></span></p>
1525
1526<p class=MsoNormal>Select <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1527style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1528mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>selected area</span></b> for the calculation
1529type; the popup will be redrawn with new options.</p>
1530
1531<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1532 id="Picture_x0020_17" o:spid="_x0000_i1038" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:181.5pt;
1533 height:102pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1534 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image033.png" o:title=""/>
1535</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=242 height=136
1536src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image034.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_17"><![endif]></span></p>
1537
1538<p class=MsoNormal>To make it interesting select <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1539normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
1540minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Max. <span class=GramE>l</span>
1541index</span></b> of <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1542style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1543mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>6</span></b> and press <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1544normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
1545minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Ok</span></b>. Very quickly a new
1546popup will appear letting you know the simulation is finished; press <b
1547style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1548mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Ok</span></b>.
1549The data window will be redrawn</p>
1550
1551<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1552 id="Picture_x0020_18" o:spid="_x0000_i1037" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468pt;
1553 height:355.5pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1554 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image035.png" o:title=""/>
1555</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=624 height=474
1556src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image036.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_18"><![endif]></span></p>
1557
1558<p class=MsoNormal>At the top is a new item <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1559normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
1560minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Plot selected area diffraction?</span></b>
1561Select it and a new plot will appear. The intensity scale is adjusted by
1562pressing <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1563mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>D</span></b>
1564(or <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1565mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>U</span></b>);
1566I got</p>
1567
1568<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1569 id="Picture_x0020_19" o:spid="_x0000_i1036" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:363pt;
1570 height:341.25pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1571 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image037.png" o:title=""/>
1572</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=484 height=455
1573src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image038.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_19"><![endif]></span></p>
1574
1575<p class=MsoNormal>The streaking intermixed with sharp spots is clearly obvious
1576in this plot. Save this project; you’ll need it for the next simulation.</p>
1577
1578<h2>Simulation 2. Laboratory powder diffraction simulation for random faults in
1579diamond</h2>
1580
1581<p class=MsoNormal>The setup for a powder pattern simulation is the same as
1582above for selected are diffraction with one crucial difference. We need a dummy
1583powder pattern to define the simulation limits. Using the same project as
1584above, do <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1585mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Import/Powder
1586data/Simulate a data set</span></b> from the main GSAS-II data tree window. A
1587popup will appear requesting the selection of an instrument parameter file;
1588here we will use one of the built in defaults. Press <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1589normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
1590minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Cancel</span></b> and a new popup
1591will appear offering some choices.</p>
1592
1593<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1594 id="Picture_x0020_20" o:spid="_x0000_i1035" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:241.5pt;
1595 height:201pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1596 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image039.png" o:title=""/>
1597</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=322 height=268
1598src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image040.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_20"><![endif]></span></p>
1599
1600<p class=MsoNormal>Use the first one for <span class=SpellE><b
1601style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1602mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>CuKa</span></b></span><b
1603style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1604mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'> lab data</span></b>;
1605a new popup will appear</p>
1606
1607<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1608 id="_x0000_i1034" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:238.5pt;height:256.5pt;
1609 visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1610 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image041.png" o:title=""/>
1611</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=318 height=342
1612src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image042.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1034"><![endif]></span></p>
1613
1614<p class=MsoNormal>Change the end angle to <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1615style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1616mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>150</span></b> and the step size to <b
1617style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1618mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>0.02</span></b>;
1619press <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1620mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Ok</span></b>
1621and choose <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:
1622"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:
1623minor-latin'>random faults </span></b>(your phase name). Notice the small data
1624window lets you know that you can clear the observed intensities in the
1625simulation by doing an <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1626style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1627mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Edit range</span></b> (no need to change
1628anything). The tree will have a new item <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1629style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1630mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>PWDR CW x-ray simulation</span></b>. Select <b
1631style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1632mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Background</span></b>
1633&amp; enter <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:
1634"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:
1635minor-latin'>50</span></b> for the 1<sup>st</sup> coefficient. Next select <b
1636style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1637mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Sample
1638parameters</span></b> and enter <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1639style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1640mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>1000</span></b> for the <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1641normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
1642minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Histogram scale factor</span></b>
1643and change the <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:
1644"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:
1645minor-latin'>Diffractometer type</span></b> to <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1646normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
1647minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Bragg-Brentano</span></b>.
1648Finally, find your phase (<b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1649style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1650mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>random faults</span></b>) and select it and
1651then the <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1652mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Layers</span></b>
1653tab. It should be unchanged from when the selected area simulation was
1654finished.</p>
1655
1656<p class=MsoNormal>To do the simulation do <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1657style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1658mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Operations/Simulate pattern</span></b> and
1659press <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1660mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Ok</span></b>
1661from the popup. The calculated pattern will by default be broadened using U, V,
1662&amp; W from the Instrument parameters for the chosen powder pattern. Other
1663choices use a mean Gaussian broadening (faster) or no broadening (even faster).
1664The only choice for the pattern is given in the next popup; press <b
1665style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1666mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Ok</span></b>
1667and the simulation will proceed. After a few seconds a small popup will appear
1668letting you know it is done; press <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1669style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1670mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Ok</span></b> and the powder pattern will be
1671displayed with the result. On the plot press the ‘<b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1672normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
1673minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>+</span></b>’ key to suppress the
1674‘+’ marks. The plot should look like: I’ve expanded the scale to show the
1675interesting stuff around each peak.</p>
1676
1677<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1678 id="_x0000_i1033" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468pt;height:440.25pt;
1679 visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1680 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image043.png" o:title=""/>
1681</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=624 height=587
1682src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image044.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1033"><![endif]></span></p>
1683
1684<p class=MsoNormal>The blue line is a simulated observed pattern with imposed
1685Poisson noise, the red line is the calculated background and the green curve is
1686the smooth calculated pattern. A difference curve is also shown. You can play
1687with changing the transition probabilities and/or the layer offsets to see what
1688effect these have on the pattern; changing these will change the calculated
1689pattern unless you reset the dummy profile as noted above.</p>
1690
1691<h2>Simulation 3. Sequential parameter change</h2>
1692
1693<p class=MsoNormal>A perhaps useful means of exploring the effects of changing
1694stacking parameters is doing a sequence of simulations varying one parameter
1695over a range. To try this out do Operations/Sequence simulations from the
1696Layers menu; a popup will appear</p>
1697
1698<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1699 id="Picture_x0020_21" o:spid="_x0000_i1032" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:209.25pt;
1700 height:143.25pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1701 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image045.png" o:title=""/>
1702</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=279 height=191
1703src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image046.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_21"><![endif]></span></p>
1704
1705<p class=MsoNormal>Here you select the parameter, range and number of steps
1706(both ends will be used). From the <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1707style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1708mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Select parameter</span></b> pulldown choose <b
1709style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1710mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>TransP<span
1711class=GramE>;0</span>;0</span></b>; this is the layer 1 to layer 1 transition
1712probability. Then change the no. steps to <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1713style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1714mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>10</span></b> (11 will be calculated). We
1715have the same choices for instrument broadening as above; use the default.
1716Press <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1717mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Ok</span></b>;
1718the next popup allows selection of a powder pattern (e.g. for comparison and the
1719range for the calculation). Press <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1720style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1721mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Ok</span></b> for this one; the sequential
1722simulation will proceed. The console displays progress and the transition
1723matrix for each step. A popup will appear when the sequence is finished after
1724several seconds. Notice that the matrix is not symmetric so that layer1 to
1725layer 1 probability is not the same as layer 2 to layer 2 at each step in the
1726simulation. We can force this by selecting <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1727style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1728mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Symmetric probabilities?</span></b> <span
1729class=GramE>on</span> the Layers page. Do this and repeat the sequential
1730simulation as above. Now the matrices are symmetric as one could expect. When
1731the simulation is finished, select the <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1732style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1733mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Plot sequential result?</span></b> <span
1734class=GramE>box</span>; a new plot will appear.</p>
1735
1736<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1737 id="Picture_x0020_22" o:spid="_x0000_i1031" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468pt;
1738 height:401.25pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1739 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image047.png" o:title=""/>
1740</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=624 height=535
1741src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image048.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_22"><![endif]></span></p>
1742
1743<p class=MsoNormal>This is a multiline plot; you can shift the lines with the <b
1744style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1745mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>U<span
1746class=GramE>,D,L,R</span></span></b> keys (<b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1747style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1748mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>O</span></b> resets offsets to zero). I’ve
1749done this for the next plot.</p>
1750
1751<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1752 id="Picture_x0020_23" o:spid="_x0000_i1030" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468pt;
1753 height:401.25pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1754 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image049.png" o:title=""/>
1755</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=624 height=535
1756src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image050.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_23"><![endif]></span></p>
1757
1758<p class=MsoNormal>The first blue line is for pure hexagonal lonsdaleite stacking
1759and the last magenta line is for pure cubic diamond stacking. You can see how
1760some lines quickly vanish with the introduction of stacking faults while other
1761persist across the entire sequence. This is a good place to save your project
1762file; the sequential result will be included.</p>
1763
1764<h2>Simulation 4. Modelling clustering in diamond</h2>
1765
1766<p class=MsoNormal>In this simulation we will explore the possibility that the
1767stacking history affects the probability of a fault. In the case of diamond, a
1768fault to form lonsdaleite could be followed by similar layers until a lower
1769probability fault converts the structure back to diamond. The crystal then has
1770blocks of diamond structure interleaved with blocks of lonsdaleite. This is
1771best done in a new phase so we don’t mess up the above simulations, but most of
1772the data in the current phase is useful for the cluster model. The easiest way
1773is to import the new phase from the current project. <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1774normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
1775minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Do Import/Phase/from GSAS-II <span
1776class=SpellE>gpx</span> file</span></b> from the main GSAS-II data tree <span
1777class=GramE>menu.</span> A file selection dialog box will appear; select the
1778current project file (<span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1779style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1780mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>diamond.gpx</span></b></span>) and press <b
1781style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1782mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Open</span></b>.
1783A small popup will appear confirming your choice; press <span class=GramE><b
1784style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1785mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Yes</span></b></span>.
1786The next popup offers the change to name the phase, I chose <b
1787style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1788mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>clustered</span></b>
1789for the name. Next select the PWDR data set to be linked to this phase. The
1790General tab for the new phase will appear.</p>
1791
1792<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1793 id="Picture_x0020_24" o:spid="_x0000_i1029" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468pt;
1794 height:252pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1795 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image051.png" o:title=""/>
1796</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=624 height=336
1797src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image052.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_24"><![endif]></span></p>
1798
1799<p class=MsoNormal>Notice that the Phase type is faulted and that Layers is one
1800of the tabs; select it.</p>
1801
1802<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1803 id="Picture_x0020_26" o:spid="_x0000_i1028" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468pt;
1804 height:355.5pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1805 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image053.png" o:title=""/>
1806</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=624 height=474
1807src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image054.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_26"><![endif]></span></p>
1808
1809<p class=MsoNormal>This is all the same information as for the random faults
1810phase. To simulate clustering we need two new layers which are the same as
1811these two listed here. Do <span class=GramE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1812normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
1813minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Add</span></b></span><b
1814style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1815mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'> new layer?</span></b>
1816<span class=GramE>twice</span> so two new layers appear. Name them <b
1817style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1818mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>layer 3</span></b>
1819and <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1820mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>layer 4</span></b>.
1821Make layer 3 <span class=GramE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1822style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1823mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Same</span></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1824normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
1825minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'> as layer</span></b> 1 (select
1826from the pull down) and layer 4 <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1827style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1828mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Same as layer 2</span></b>. Each time the
1829window is redrawn so that the transition probability tables reflect these
1830changes. You should also change the <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1831style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1832mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Diffraction Laue symmetry</span></b> to <b
1833style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1834mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>-3m</span></b>.
1835When you are done the upper part of the Layers window should look like.</p>
1836
1837<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
1838
1839<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
1840
1841<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1842 id="Picture_x0020_28" o:spid="_x0000_i1027" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468pt;
1843 height:355.5pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1844 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image055.png" o:title=""/>
1845</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=624 height=474
1846src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image056.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_28"><![endif]></span></p>
1847
1848<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
1849
1850<p class=MsoNormal>The transition vectors for the cluster model are similar to
1851the random faults model, i.e. layer 1-1 and layer 3-1 transitions are <b
1852style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1853mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>2/3,1/3,1</span></b>
1854for <span class=SpellE>Dx</span>, <span class=SpellE>Dy</span> &amp; <span
1855class=SpellE>Dz</span>, layer, and layer 2-4 and 4-4 transitions are <b
1856style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
1857mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>-2/3,-1/3,1</span></b>
1858for <span class=SpellE>Dx</span>, <span class=SpellE>Dy</span> &amp; Dz. All
1859the rest are <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:
1860"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:
1861minor-latin'>0<span class=GramE>,0,1</span></span></b> for <span class=SpellE>Dx</span>,,<span
1862class=SpellE>Dy</span> &amp; Dz. The probabilities can best be seen from the
1863following array</p>
1864
1865<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
1866
1867<table class=MsoTableGrid border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
1868 style='border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
1869 mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
1870 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;height:21.45pt'>
1871  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1872  mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1873  <p class=MsoNormal>Layer</p>
1874  </td>
1875  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1876  border-left:none;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:
1877  solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1878  <p class=MsoNormal>1</p>
1879  </td>
1880  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1881  border-left:none;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:
1882  solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1883  <p class=MsoNormal>2</p>
1884  </td>
1885  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1886  border-left:none;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:
1887  solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1888  <p class=MsoNormal>3</p>
1889  </td>
1890  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1891  border-left:none;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:
1892  solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1893  <p class=MsoNormal>4</p>
1894  </td>
1895 </tr>
1896 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1;height:21.45pt'>
1897  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1898  border-top:none;mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
1899  padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1900  <p class=MsoNormal>1</p>
1901  </td>
1902  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border-top:none;border-left:
1903  none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1904  mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
1905  mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1906  <p class=MsoNormal>CS</p>
1907  </td>
1908  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border-top:none;border-left:
1909  none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1910  mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
1911  mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1912  <p class=MsoNormal>CF</p>
1913  </td>
1914  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border-top:none;border-left:
1915  none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1916  mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
1917  mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1918  <p class=MsoNormal>x</p>
1919  </td>
1920  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border-top:none;border-left:
1921  none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1922  mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
1923  mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1924  <p class=MsoNormal>x</p>
1925  </td>
1926 </tr>
1927 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:2;height:21.45pt'>
1928  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1929  border-top:none;mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
1930  padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1931  <p class=MsoNormal>2</p>
1932  </td>
1933  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border-top:none;border-left:
1934  none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1935  mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
1936  mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1937  <p class=MsoNormal>x</p>
1938  </td>
1939  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border-top:none;border-left:
1940  none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1941  mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
1942  mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1943  <p class=MsoNormal>x</p>
1944  </td>
1945  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border-top:none;border-left:
1946  none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1947  mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
1948  mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1949  <p class=MsoNormal>HS</p>
1950  </td>
1951  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border-top:none;border-left:
1952  none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1953  mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
1954  mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1955  <p class=MsoNormal>HF</p>
1956  </td>
1957 </tr>
1958 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:3;height:21.45pt'>
1959  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1960  border-top:none;mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
1961  padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1962  <p class=MsoNormal>3</p>
1963  </td>
1964  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border-top:none;border-left:
1965  none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1966  mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
1967  mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1968  <p class=MsoNormal>HF</p>
1969  </td>
1970  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border-top:none;border-left:
1971  none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1972  mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
1973  mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1974  <p class=MsoNormal>HS</p>
1975  </td>
1976  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border-top:none;border-left:
1977  none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1978  mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
1979  mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1980  <p class=MsoNormal>x</p>
1981  </td>
1982  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border-top:none;border-left:
1983  none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1984  mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
1985  mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1986  <p class=MsoNormal>x</p>
1987  </td>
1988 </tr>
1989 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:4;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes;height:21.45pt'>
1990  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1991  border-top:none;mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
1992  padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1993  <p class=MsoNormal>4</p>
1994  </td>
1995  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border-top:none;border-left:
1996  none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
1997  mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
1998  mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
1999  <p class=MsoNormal>x</p>
2000  </td>
2001  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border-top:none;border-left:
2002  none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
2003  mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
2004  mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
2005  <p class=MsoNormal>x</p>
2006  </td>
2007  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border-top:none;border-left:
2008  none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
2009  mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
2010  mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
2011  <p class=MsoNormal>CF</p>
2012  </td>
2013  <td width=72 valign=top style='width:54.05pt;border-top:none;border-left:
2014  none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
2015  mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
2016  mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;height:21.45pt'>
2017  <p class=MsoNormal>CS</p>
2018  </td>
2019 </tr>
2020</table>
2021
2022<p class=MsoNormal>Where CS – cubic stacking, CF – cubic fault, HS – hexagonal stacking,
2023HF – hexagonal fault and x – not allowed. A suitable model might be CS = <b
2024style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
2025mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>0.9</span></b>,
2026CF = <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
2027mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>0.1</span></b>,
2028HS = <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
2029mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>0.8</span></b>
2030and HF = <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
2031mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>0.2</span></b>.
2032This will give more and thicker cubic blocks than hexagonal ones. Set these
2033values and the Transition tables should look like</p>
2034
2035<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
2036 id="Picture_x0020_29" o:spid="_x0000_i1026" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468pt;
2037 height:465pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
2038 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image057.png" o:title=""/>
2039</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=624 height=620
2040src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image058.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_29"><![endif]></span></p>
2041
2042<p class=MsoNormal>Before doing the simulation we need to clear away the old
2043one; select the <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:
2044"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:
2045minor-latin'>PWDR</span></b> entry from the GSAS-II data tree and then select <b
2046style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
2047mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Edit range</span></b>
2048from the data window. Don’t change anything, just press <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
2049normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
2050minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Ok</span></b>; this will clear
2051the previous simulation. Then return to the clustered phase Layers tab. Do <b
2052style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
2053mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Operations/Simulate
2054pattern</span></b> and press <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
2055style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
2056mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Ok</span></b> twice. The simulation will
2057require some seconds to finish; the powder profile will look like</p>
2058
2059<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
2060 id="Picture_x0020_30" o:spid="_x0000_i1025" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:468pt;
2061 height:401.25pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
2062 <v:imagedata src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image059.png" o:title=""/>
2063</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=624 height=535
2064src="Stacking%20Faults-I_files/image060.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_30"><![endif]></span></p>
2065
2066<p class=MsoNormal>Again, I have used ‘<b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
2067style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
2068mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>+</span></b>’ and zoomed in to show the
2069interesting part of the pattern. </p>
2070
2071<p class=MsoNormal>As additional work you can do sequential simulations to
2072explore the effect of changing probabilities. Try varying <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
2073normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
2074minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>TransP;0;0</span></b>, i.e. layer
20751 – layer 1 (CS) transition probability and <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
2076normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
2077minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>TransP;2;1</span></b>, i.e. layer
20783 – layer – 2 (HS) transition probability. Be sure the <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
2079normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;mso-ascii-theme-font:
2080minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Symmetric probabilities</span></b>
2081box is checked otherwise you’ll get nonsense. This ends this stacking fault
2082tutorial; the next one involves using kaolinite layers to simulate diffraction patterns
2083from kaolinite clays.</p>
2084
2085</div>
2086
2087</body>
2088
2089</html>
Note: See TracBrowser for help on using the repository browser.