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384        mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
385        margin-right:0in;
386        mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
387        margin-left:0in;
388        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
389        mso-outline-level:1;
390        font-size:24.0pt;
391        font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
392        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
393        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
394        font-weight:bold;}
395h2
396        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
397        mso-style-priority:9;
398        mso-style-qformat:yes;
399        mso-style-link:"Heading 2 Char";
400        mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
401        margin-right:0in;
402        mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
403        margin-left:0in;
404        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
405        mso-outline-level:2;
406        font-size:18.0pt;
407        font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
408        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
409        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
410        font-weight:bold;}
411h3
412        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
413        mso-style-priority:9;
414        mso-style-qformat:yes;
415        mso-style-link:"Heading 3 Char";
416        mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
417        margin-right:0in;
418        mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
419        margin-left:0in;
420        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
421        mso-outline-level:3;
422        font-size:13.5pt;
423        font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
424        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
425        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
426        font-weight:bold;}
427h4
428        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
429        mso-style-priority:9;
430        mso-style-qformat:yes;
431        mso-style-link:"Heading 4 Char";
432        mso-style-next:Normal;
433        margin-top:10.0pt;
434        margin-right:0in;
435        margin-bottom:0in;
436        margin-left:0in;
437        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
438        mso-pagination:widow-orphan lines-together;
439        page-break-after:avoid;
440        mso-outline-level:4;
441        font-size:13.0pt;
442        font-family:"Cambria","serif";
443        mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria;
444        mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin;
445        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
446        mso-fareast-theme-font:major-fareast;
447        mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria;
448        mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;
449        mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
450        mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi;
451        color:#4F81BD;
452        mso-themecolor:accent1;
453        font-weight:bold;
454        font-style:italic;}
455h5
456        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
457        mso-style-priority:9;
458        mso-style-qformat:yes;
459        mso-style-link:"Heading 5 Char";
460        mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
461        margin-right:0in;
462        mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
463        margin-left:0in;
464        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
465        mso-outline-level:5;
466        font-size:12.0pt;
467        font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
468        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
469        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
470        color:#4F4FFF;
471        font-weight:bold;}
472p.MsoTitle, li.MsoTitle, div.MsoTitle
473        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
474        mso-style-priority:10;
475        mso-style-unhide:no;
476        mso-style-qformat:yes;
477        mso-style-link:"Title Char";
478        mso-style-next:Normal;
479        margin-top:0in;
480        margin-right:0in;
481        margin-bottom:15.0pt;
482        margin-left:0in;
483        mso-add-space:auto;
484        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
485        border:none;
486        mso-border-bottom-alt:solid #4F81BD 1.0pt;
487        mso-border-bottom-themecolor:accent1;
488        padding:0in;
489        mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 4.0pt 0in;
490        font-size:26.0pt;
491        font-family:"Cambria","serif";
492        mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria;
493        mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin;
494        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
495        mso-fareast-theme-font:major-fareast;
496        mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria;
497        mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;
498        mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
499        mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi;
500        color:#17365D;
501        mso-themecolor:text2;
502        mso-themeshade:191;
503        letter-spacing:.25pt;
504        mso-font-kerning:14.0pt;}
505p.MsoTitleCxSpFirst, li.MsoTitleCxSpFirst, div.MsoTitleCxSpFirst
506        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
507        mso-style-priority:10;
508        mso-style-unhide:no;
509        mso-style-qformat:yes;
510        mso-style-link:"Title Char";
511        mso-style-next:Normal;
512        mso-style-type:export-only;
513        margin:0in;
514        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
515        mso-add-space:auto;
516        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
517        border:none;
518        mso-border-bottom-alt:solid #4F81BD 1.0pt;
519        mso-border-bottom-themecolor:accent1;
520        padding:0in;
521        mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 4.0pt 0in;
522        font-size:26.0pt;
523        font-family:"Cambria","serif";
524        mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria;
525        mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin;
526        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
527        mso-fareast-theme-font:major-fareast;
528        mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria;
529        mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;
530        mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
531        mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi;
532        color:#17365D;
533        mso-themecolor:text2;
534        mso-themeshade:191;
535        letter-spacing:.25pt;
536        mso-font-kerning:14.0pt;}
537p.MsoTitleCxSpMiddle, li.MsoTitleCxSpMiddle, div.MsoTitleCxSpMiddle
538        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
539        mso-style-priority:10;
540        mso-style-unhide:no;
541        mso-style-qformat:yes;
542        mso-style-link:"Title Char";
543        mso-style-next:Normal;
544        mso-style-type:export-only;
545        margin:0in;
546        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
547        mso-add-space:auto;
548        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
549        border:none;
550        mso-border-bottom-alt:solid #4F81BD 1.0pt;
551        mso-border-bottom-themecolor:accent1;
552        padding:0in;
553        mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 4.0pt 0in;
554        font-size:26.0pt;
555        font-family:"Cambria","serif";
556        mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria;
557        mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin;
558        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
559        mso-fareast-theme-font:major-fareast;
560        mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria;
561        mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;
562        mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
563        mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi;
564        color:#17365D;
565        mso-themecolor:text2;
566        mso-themeshade:191;
567        letter-spacing:.25pt;
568        mso-font-kerning:14.0pt;}
569p.MsoTitleCxSpLast, li.MsoTitleCxSpLast, div.MsoTitleCxSpLast
570        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
571        mso-style-priority:10;
572        mso-style-unhide:no;
573        mso-style-qformat:yes;
574        mso-style-link:"Title Char";
575        mso-style-next:Normal;
576        mso-style-type:export-only;
577        margin-top:0in;
578        margin-right:0in;
579        margin-bottom:15.0pt;
580        margin-left:0in;
581        mso-add-space:auto;
582        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
583        border:none;
584        mso-border-bottom-alt:solid #4F81BD 1.0pt;
585        mso-border-bottom-themecolor:accent1;
586        padding:0in;
587        mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 4.0pt 0in;
588        font-size:26.0pt;
589        font-family:"Cambria","serif";
590        mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria;
591        mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin;
592        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
593        mso-fareast-theme-font:major-fareast;
594        mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria;
595        mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;
596        mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
597        mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi;
598        color:#17365D;
599        mso-themecolor:text2;
600        mso-themeshade:191;
601        letter-spacing:.25pt;
602        mso-font-kerning:14.0pt;}
603a:link, span.MsoHyperlink
604        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
605        mso-style-priority:99;
606        color:blue;
607        text-decoration:underline;
608        text-underline:single;}
609a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed
610        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
611        mso-style-priority:99;
612        color:purple;
613        text-decoration:underline;
614        text-underline:single;}
615p.MsoDocumentMap, li.MsoDocumentMap, div.MsoDocumentMap
616        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
617        mso-style-priority:99;
618        mso-style-link:"Document Map Char";
619        margin:0in;
620        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
621        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
622        font-size:8.0pt;
623        font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif";
624        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
625        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;}
626p
627        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
628        mso-style-priority:99;
629        mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
630        margin-right:0in;
631        mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
632        margin-left:0in;
633        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
634        font-size:12.0pt;
635        font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
636        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
637        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;}
638pre
639        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
640        mso-style-priority:99;
641        mso-style-link:"HTML Preformatted Char";
642        margin:0in;
643        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
644        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
645        tab-stops:45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt;
646        font-size:10.0pt;
647        font-family:"Courier New";
648        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";}
649p.MsoAcetate, li.MsoAcetate, div.MsoAcetate
650        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
651        mso-style-priority:99;
652        mso-style-link:"Balloon Text Char";
653        margin:0in;
654        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
655        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
656        font-size:8.0pt;
657        font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif";
658        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
659        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;}
660span.MsoPlaceholderText
661        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
662        mso-style-priority:99;
663        mso-style-unhide:no;
664        color:gray;}
665p.MsoNoSpacing, li.MsoNoSpacing, div.MsoNoSpacing
666        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
667        mso-style-priority:1;
668        mso-style-unhide:no;
669        mso-style-qformat:yes;
670        mso-style-parent:"";
671        margin:0in;
672        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
673        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
674        font-size:12.0pt;
675        font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
676        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
677        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;}
678p.MsoListParagraph, li.MsoListParagraph, div.MsoListParagraph
679        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
680        mso-style-priority:34;
681        mso-style-unhide:no;
682        mso-style-qformat:yes;
683        margin-top:0in;
684        margin-right:0in;
685        margin-bottom:0in;
686        margin-left:.5in;
687        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
688        mso-add-space:auto;
689        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
690        font-size:12.0pt;
691        font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
692        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
693        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;}
694p.MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst, li.MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst, div.MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst
695        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
696        mso-style-priority:34;
697        mso-style-unhide:no;
698        mso-style-qformat:yes;
699        mso-style-type:export-only;
700        margin-top:0in;
701        margin-right:0in;
702        margin-bottom:0in;
703        margin-left:.5in;
704        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
705        mso-add-space:auto;
706        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
707        font-size:12.0pt;
708        font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
709        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
710        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;}
711p.MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle, li.MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle, div.MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle
712        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
713        mso-style-priority:34;
714        mso-style-unhide:no;
715        mso-style-qformat:yes;
716        mso-style-type:export-only;
717        margin-top:0in;
718        margin-right:0in;
719        margin-bottom:0in;
720        margin-left:.5in;
721        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
722        mso-add-space:auto;
723        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
724        font-size:12.0pt;
725        font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
726        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
727        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;}
728p.MsoListParagraphCxSpLast, li.MsoListParagraphCxSpLast, div.MsoListParagraphCxSpLast
729        {mso-style-noshow:yes;
730        mso-style-priority:34;
731        mso-style-unhide:no;
732        mso-style-qformat:yes;
733        mso-style-type:export-only;
734        margin-top:0in;
735        margin-right:0in;
736        margin-bottom:0in;
737        margin-left:.5in;
738        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
739        mso-add-space:auto;
740        mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
741        font-size:12.0pt;
742        font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
743        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
744        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;}
745span.MsoIntenseReference
746        {mso-style-priority:32;
747        mso-style-unhide:no;
748        mso-style-qformat:yes;
749        font-variant:small-caps;
750        color:#C0504D;
751        mso-themecolor:accent2;
752        letter-spacing:.25pt;
753        font-weight:bold;
754        text-decoration:underline;
755        text-underline:single;}
756span.Heading1Char
757        {mso-style-name:"Heading 1 Char";
758        mso-style-priority:9;
759        mso-style-unhide:no;
760        mso-style-locked:yes;
761        mso-style-link:"Heading 1";
762        mso-ansi-font-size:24.0pt;
763        mso-bidi-font-size:24.0pt;
764        font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
765        mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";
766        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
767        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
768        mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
769        mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
770        mso-font-kerning:18.0pt;
771        font-weight:bold;}
772span.Heading2Char
773        {mso-style-name:"Heading 2 Char";
774        mso-style-noshow:yes;
775        mso-style-priority:9;
776        mso-style-unhide:no;
777        mso-style-locked:yes;
778        mso-style-link:"Heading 2";
779        mso-ansi-font-size:18.0pt;
780        mso-bidi-font-size:18.0pt;
781        font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
782        mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";
783        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
784        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
785        mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
786        mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
787        font-weight:bold;}
788span.Heading3Char
789        {mso-style-name:"Heading 3 Char";
790        mso-style-noshow:yes;
791        mso-style-priority:9;
792        mso-style-unhide:no;
793        mso-style-locked:yes;
794        mso-style-link:"Heading 3";
795        mso-ansi-font-size:13.5pt;
796        mso-bidi-font-size:13.5pt;
797        font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
798        mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";
799        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
800        mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
801        mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
802        mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
803        font-weight:bold;}
804span.Heading4Char
805        {mso-style-name:"Heading 4 Char";
806        mso-style-noshow:yes;
807        mso-style-priority:9;
808        mso-style-unhide:no;
809        mso-style-locked:yes;
810        mso-style-link:"Heading 4";
811        mso-ansi-font-size:13.0pt;
812        mso-bidi-font-size:13.0pt;
813        font-family:"Cambria","serif";
814        mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria;
815        mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin;
816        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
817        mso-fareast-theme-font:major-fareast;
818        mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria;
819        mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;
820        mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
821        mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi;
822        color:#4F81BD;
823        mso-themecolor:accent1;
824        font-weight:bold;
825        font-style:italic;}
826span.Heading5Char
827        {mso-style-name:"Heading 5 Char";
828        mso-style-noshow:yes;
829        mso-style-priority:9;
830        mso-style-unhide:no;
831        mso-style-locked:yes;
832        mso-style-link:"Heading 5";
833        mso-ansi-font-size:12.0pt;
834        mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;
835        font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
836        mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";
837        mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
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966
967<body lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval:.5in'>
968
969<div class=WordSection1>
970
971<h1>Integration of area detector data in GSAS-II</h1>
972
973<p class=MsoNormal>In this demo, data collected with a Perkin-Elmer area
974detector at APS 11-ID-C with a wavelength 0.10798 A, where the detector was
975intentionally tilted at 45 degrees, are used. Note that menu entries are listed
976in <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";
977mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:
978Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>bold face</span></b> below as <b
979style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";
980mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:
981Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Help/About GSAS-II</span></b>, which
982lists first the name of the menu (here <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
983style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
984mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:
985minor-latin'>Help</span></b>) and second the name of the entry in the menu
986(here <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";
987mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:
988Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>About GSAS-II</span></b>).</p>
989
990<h2>Prerequisite:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><a
991href="Calibration%20of%20an%20area%20detector%20in%20GSAS.htm">Calibration Demo</a></h2>
992
993<p class=MsoNormal>This assumes that an image data set has been read in and
994calibration results have been derived, see the <a
995href="Calibration%20of%20an%20area%20detector%20in%20GSAS.htm">Calibration Demo</a></p>
996
997<h2>Step 1: Clear calibration plot</h2>
998
999<p class=MsoNormal>Assuming the previous step was calibration, the image plot
1000will show the located rings and possibly all the picked points. These are no
1001longer needed. The <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1002style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1003mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:
1004minor-latin'>Image Controls/Clear Calibration</span></b> menu entry removes
1005these from the plot, but<u> does not clear the calibration results</u>. Use of
1006this menu item is not required, but does speed future display of results. </p>
1007
1008<h2>Step 2: Integration Settings</h2>
1009
1010<p class=MsoNormal>In the simplest case, all that is needed is to click on the <b
1011style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";
1012mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:
1013Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Do full integration?</span></b> <span
1014class=GramE>check</span> box and adjust the inner and outer 2-theta values with
1015the <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";
1016mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:
1017Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Inner 2-theta</span></b> and<b
1018style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'> </b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1019style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1020mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:
1021minor-latin'>Outer 2-theta</span></b> controls. It is helpful to see the
1022two-theta limits on the plot visually, while adjusting the two-theta range.
1023This is done by clicking on the <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1024style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1025mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:
1026minor-latin'>Show integration limits?</span></b> <span class=GramE>check</span>
1027box. Note that inner limit is shown as a green ellipse at 2deg and the outer is
1028shown as a red ellipse at 5deg by default. These limits may also be dragged to
1029the desired values; a small popup window shows the value. </p>
1030
1031<p class=MsoNormal>Change the limits to <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1032style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1033mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:
1034minor-latin'>1</span></b> and <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1035style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1036mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:
1037minor-latin'>7</span></b> for this data. Note that changes are displayed when
1038numbers are placed in the boxes only after pressing return or tab key or by
1039clicking on some other item in the window.</p>
1040
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1068
1069<h3>Other useful controls:</h3>
1070
1071<p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1072style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1073mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:
1074minor-latin'>Azimuth offset</span></b>: The image horizontal axis (from the
1075beam center, going right) is labeled with the azimuth value placed in the <b
1076style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";
1077mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:
1078Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Azimuth offset</span></b> box. This is
1079usually zero unless the image plate has been rotated about its normal axis.</p>
1080
1081<p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1082style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1083mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:
1084minor-latin'>Start/End azimuth</span></b>: The integration is started at the
1085Start azimuth angle in the left box, and when the <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1086normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:
1087minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;
1088mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Do full integration?</span></b> <span
1089class=GramE>check</span> box is not checked, the integration will be run only
1090to the maximum value specified. When the range is less than 360 degrees, the
1091integration range will be shown (if selected) with the high and low limits
1092plotted and only segments of the max and min ellipses drawn. These limits may
1093also be dragged on the plot to desired locations. In this case <b
1094style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";
1095mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>45</span></b>
1096is a better choice than the default.</p>
1097
1098<p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1099style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1100mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:
1101minor-latin'>Number of 2-theta bins</span></b>: The resulting 1-D powder
1102pattern after integration will consist of this many points. This number should
1103be on the order of the number of pixels in one direction (since resolution
1104cannot be much better than this) or less, if instrumental resolution and sample
1105broadening does not require that many points. Some trial and error may be
1106needed, but there should more than 6 points across each peak
1107full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) in the final pattern to be useful for further
1108analysis. For this reason <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1109style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1110mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>5000</span></b> is a better choice than the
1111default.</p>
1112
1113<p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1114style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1115mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:
1116minor-latin'>Number of azimuth bins</span></b>: In cases where the diffraction
1117experiment shows changes as a function of azimuthal angle, the integration can
1118be performed as a function of angle. This number specifies the number of bins
1119to use by azimuthal angle. The process of breaking up the integration in this
1120way is sometimes called &quot;caking&quot; since the integration region grows
1121with distance from the beam-center, with a shape like a slice of cake or pie.
1122When more than one azimuthal bin is used, the regions are shown in the plot with
1123dashed lines, when the <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1124style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1125mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Show integration limits?</span></b> <span
1126class=GramE>check</span> box is checked. </p>
1127
1128<p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1129style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1130mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Appl. Sample absorption</span></b> and <b
1131style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";
1132mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>value</span></b>:
1133An absorption correction for a horizontal cylinder is applied to the results of
1134the integration. The range in <span style='font-family:Symbol'>m</span>R is
1135limited because the correction is unreliable for <span style='font-family:Symbol'>m</span>R
1136&gt; 2.</p>
1137
1138<p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1139style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1140mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:
1141minor-latin'>Appl. det. absorption</span></b> and <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1142normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:
1143minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;
1144mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>value</span></b>: The scattered ray beams are
1145partially absorbed by the detector depending on the scattering angle. This
1146reduces the intensity of higher angle data more than low angle data. The value
1147is dependent on the wavelength and the materials used for the front surface of
1148the detector, so some experimentation with a standard is needed to establish an
1149appropriate value.</p>
1150
1151<p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1152style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1153mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Dark image</span></b> and <b
1154style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";
1155mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Multiplier</span></b>:
1156You can designate a previously read in dark image (if the image acquisition
1157software hasn’t already subtracted it!); it will immediately be applied to the
1158visible image so you will see the result of the removal of the dark image. Note
1159that the <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";
1160mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:
1161Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Multiplier</span></b> must be negative
1162for it to be subtracted. Note that all images used in this way must be exactly
1163the same format (number of pixels &amp; pixel size).</p>
1164
1165<p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1166style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1167mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:
1168minor-latin'>Background image</span> </b>and<b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1169normal'> </b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:
1170"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:
1171minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Multiplier</span></b>:
1172You can designate a previously read in image as background which will then be
1173used to modify each data image as they are integrated. Note that the <b
1174style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";
1175mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:
1176Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Multiplier</span></b> must be negative
1177for it to be subtracted. Note that all images used in this way must be exactly
1178the same format (number of pixels &amp; pixel size).</p>
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1184  o:title=""/>
1185</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=700 height=600
1186src="Integration%20of%20area%20detector%20data%20in%20GSAS_files/image006.png"
1187v:shapes="Picture_x0020_6"><![endif]></span></p>
1188
1189<h2>Step 3: Perform integration </h2>
1190
1191<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Use the <b
1192style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";
1193mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:
1194Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Image Operations/Integrate</span></b>
1195image data menu item to start the integration. This will take at least a few
1196seconds. If multiple images have been read in, the <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1197normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:
1198minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;
1199mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>Integrate All</span></b> menu item can be
1200used. This is most useful when the <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
1201style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
1202mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:
1203minor-latin'>Use as Default</span></b> option is in use for one image.</p>
1204
1205<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>At this point the
1206data tree window will have new entries as each azimuthal &quot;slice&quot;
1207added to the data tree as a powder pattern</p>
1208
1209<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1210 id="Picture_x0020_8" o:spid="_x0000_i1026" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:300pt;
1211 height:187.5pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1212 <v:imagedata src="Integration%20of%20area%20detector%20data%20in%20GSAS_files/image003.png"
1213  o:title=""/>
1214</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=400 height=250
1215src="Integration%20of%20area%20detector%20data%20in%20GSAS_files/image003.png"
1216v:shapes="Picture_x0020_8"><![endif]></span><span
1217style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></p>
1218
1219<p class=MsoNormal>A plot is added to the plot window with a conventional 1-D
1220powder pattern(s) for each &quot;slice&quot;</p>
1221
1222<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
1223 id="Picture_x0020_7" o:spid="_x0000_i1025" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:525pt;
1224 height:450pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'>
1225 <v:imagedata src="Integration%20of%20area%20detector%20data%20in%20GSAS_files/image007.png"
1226  o:title=""/>
1227</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=700 height=600
1228src="Integration%20of%20area%20detector%20data%20in%20GSAS_files/image007.png"
1229v:shapes="Picture_x0020_7"><![endif]></span></p>
1230
1231<p class=MsoNormal>Again you could save the project with <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
1232normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";mso-ascii-theme-font:
1233minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;
1234mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>File/Save project</span></b> on the main <b
1235style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";
1236mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:
1237Calibri;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-latin'>GSAS-II data tree</span></b> menu
1238although it is not needed for any further tutorials.</p>
1239
1240<h2>Next demo: <a href="Fit%20Peaks.htm"><span style='color:windowtext;
1241text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Fit Peaks and <span class=SpellE>Autoindexing</span></span></a></h2>
1242
1243</div>
1244
1245</body>
1246
1247</html>
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