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1 Probability & Statistics – Bell Ringer Make a list of all the possible places where you encounter probability or statistics in your everyday life. 2 Probability & Statistics – Day 3 “BELL RINGER” DISCUSSION STATS INTRO – LESSON 1 IN-CLASS EXERCISES 3 CHAPTER ONE THE NATURE AND PROBABILITY OF STATISTICS 4 LESSON ESSENTIAL QUESTION Why is it important to study statistics? 5 Key Term Statistics: the science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summarize, analyze, and draw conclusions. 6 Why Study Statistics? 1. Students and professionals must be able to read and understand statistical studies performed in their field. Requires knowledge of vocabulary, symbols, concepts, and statistical procedures used in these studies. 7 Why Study Statistics? 2. Students and professionals may be required to conduct research in their field. Research requires use of statistical procedures to perform experiments, conduct surveys, etc. Eventually communicate findings to others. 8 Why Study Statistics? 3. Students and professionals can use knowledge gained from studying statistics to become better consumers and citizens. Intelligent decisions: 9 Key Terms Variable: a characteristic or attribute that can assume different values. Random Variable: determined by chance. Data: value (measurements or observations) that the variables can assume. 10 Key Terms Probability: the chance of an event occurring. Population: consists of all subjects that are being studied. Sample: a group of subjects selected from a population. 11 Brainstorm Why are samples used? 12 Branches of Statistics Descriptive: consists of the collection, organization, summarization, and presentation of data. Ex: 13 Branches of Statistics Inferential: consists of generalizing from samples to populations, performing hypothesis testing, determining relationships among variables, and making predictions. Ex: 14 Brainstorm Think of a topic that you would enjoy doing a study on and be prepared to share it. 15 In-Class Exercises Page 23: 6 16 Assignment Read pp. 1-17 17 Probability & Statistics – Day 4 1.3 Key Terms In-Class Exercises “Applying the Concepts” Worksheet 18 Types of Variables Qualitative: variables that can be placed into distinct categories, according to some characteristic or attribute. - Ex: 19 Types of Variables Quantitative: numerical in nature and can be ordered or ranked. - Ex: 20 Quantitative Variables Discrete: assume values that can be counted. - Ex: 21 Quantitative Variables Continuous: assume all values between any two specific values. - Ex: 22 Measurement Scales Nominal Level: classifies data into mutually exclusive categories in which no order or ranking can be imposed on the data. - Ex: 23 Measurement Scales Ordinal Level: classifies data into categories that can be ranked; however, precise differences between the ranks do not exist. - Ex: 24 Measurement Scales Interval Level: ranks data, and precise differences between units of measure do exist; however, there is no meaningful zero. - Ex: 25 Measurement Scales Ratio Level: possesses all the characteristics of interval measurement, and a true zero does exist. - Ex: 26 Measurement Scales – Examples Height: Temperature: Major Field: Eye Color: IQ Scores: Ranking of Golfers: Salary: Zip Code: 27 Measurement Scales – Examples Grade (A, B, C, D, F): Gender: Judging (1st, 2nd, etc): Age: Political Affiliation: SAT Score: Time: Rating Scale (poor, good, excellent): 28 Assignment Page 24: 7-9 29 Probability & Statistics – Day 5 Go over homework – Page 24: 7-9 “Applying the Concepts” Worksheet 1.4-1.5 Lesson Assignment 30 Methods of Sampling Random: selected by using chance methods or random numbers. - Ex: 31 Methods of Sampling Systematic: subjects are selected by using every 𝒌𝒕𝒉 number after the first subject is randomly selected from 1 through 𝒌. - Ex: 32 Methods of Sampling Stratified: subjects are selected by dividing up the population into groups and subjects within groups are randomly selected. - Ex: 33 Methods of Sampling Cluster: subjects are selected by using an intact group that is representative of the population. - Ex: 34 Methods of Sampling Convenience: local subjects are selected - Ex: 35 Types of Studies Observational: researcher merely observes what is happening or what has happened in the past and tries to draw conclusions based on these observations. - Ex: Upcoming Slide 36 Types of Studies Experimental: researcher manipulates one of the variables and tries to determine how the manipulation influences other variables. - Ex: Upcoming Slide 37 Study #1 Data from the Motorcycle Industry Council stated that “Motorcycle owners are getting older and richer.” Data was collected on the ages and incomes of motorcycle owners for the years of 1998 and 2008 and then compared. The findings showed considerable differences in the ages and incomes of motorcycle owners for the two years. 38 Study #2 A study conducted divided female students into two groups and had the students perform as many sit-ups as possible in 90 seconds. The first group was told only to “do your best,” while the other group was told to increase the actual number of sit-ups they did each day by 10%. After four days, the subjects in the first group averaged 43 sit-ups, while the other group averaged 56 sit-ups. 39 Experimental Variables Independent: manipulated by researcher. Dependent: variable being studied for possible effects from manipulation of independent variable. Confounding: variable that influences the dependent variable but cannot be separated from the independent variable. 40 Types of Groups Treatment Group: a group that has received some type of special treatment. - Ex: Control Group: a group that is not given any special treatment. - Ex: 41 Assignment Pages 24-25: 12, 17-20 42 Probability & Statistics – Day 6 Go over homework – Pages 24-25: 12, 17-20 Chapter 1 Review Assignment Chapter 1 Test tomorrow! 43 Chapter 1 Review Pages 26-27: 1-24 (skip 3, 7, 9, and 20) Page 27: 1, 2, 5, and 6 44 Probability & Statistics – Day 7 Chapter 1 Test Read pp. 32-40