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1<html>
2<head>
3   <title>GSAS/EXPGUI Alumina Tutorial Intro</title>
4</head>
5
6<style>
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14
15<?
16   include("/var/www/include/navigation.inc");
17   include("/var/www/include/utility.inc");
18?>
19<blockquote>
20
21<TABLE BORDER BGCOLOR="#FFFF40" ALIGN=RIGHT>
22</TH><TH><A Href="alumina1.html">First page in tutorial</A>
23</TH></TR></TABLE><BR CLEAR=ALL>
24
25<CENTER>
26<H1><HR noshade width="75%" size="2" align="center">
27GSAS/EXPGUI Alumina example (Intro)
28<HR noshade width="75%" size="2" align="center">
29</H1>
30</CENTER>
31<H1>What's this all about?</H1>
32The goal of Rietveld analysis is to fit a structural model
33("crystal structure") to powder diffraction data. To do this requires
34determining the structural parameters [unit cell,
35atom positions and displacement (thermal) parameters, etc.]
36for all crystalline phases present, as well as a variety of
37instrumental and sample parameters that describe the experimental and
38sample conditions: scale factors, peak broadening, the background,
39preferred orientation, etc.
40In most cases Rietveld analysis is performed to determine the structural
41parameters, but increasingly, the method is also used to determine relative
42amounts of the crystallographic phases, the amount and type of peak
43broadening, the preferred orientation, or similar types of sample
44characterization.
45<P>
46This exercise provides a tutorial example of how to use the
47<A href="http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/xtal/software/gsas.html">GSAS</a>
48software package
49with the
50<A href="http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/xtal/software/expgui/expgui_intro.html">EXPGUI</A>
51interface to perform Rietveld analysis. The material chosen for this exercise,
52corundum (aka alumina,
53sapphire or ruby),
54has a simple structure, so the starting coordinates have been distorted
55so that there is an improvement obtained by performing the fit.
56Likewise, this sample exhibited virtually no sample-related broadening,
57so the instrumental peak profile was altered so that the peak profile
58terms would not agree with the data, again so that the exercise would
59demonstrate the sorts of steps needed for typical Rietveld refinements.
60The tutorial consists of 11 web pages, each has a series of related
61steps. There are also editorial comments, that explain a point further
62or explain how these steps might be applied differently in another case.
63<I>These comments are in specified in italic type</I>.
64<P>
65Rietveld analysis works using non-linear least-squares fitting to
66optimize (refine) parameters. This
67means that we must start with approximate values for all parameters that
68will be fit. We then allow the software to optimize a small subset of the
69parameters -- a minimal number of parameters that must be fit before any
70progress can be made. Slowly, additional parameters are selected to be
71refined, until
72all parameters in the model (if the data support that) are refined.
73Despite the simplicity of the material, this exercise
74demonstrates many of the procedures needed for more complex materials.
75<P>
76EXPGUI and GSAS run on Windows, Linux and IRIX (Silicon Graphics computers).
77The example figures show in this tutorial were generated in Unix,
78but virtually all GSAS and EXPGUI operation is identical between Unix and
79Windows. Note also that the appearance of EXPGUI changes slightly as
80new features are added. The screen images do not exactly match the current
81version of EXPGUI.
82<P>
83
84
85<H1>Getting Started</H1>
86
87To perform this tutorial on your own computer, you will need to
88have GSAS and EXPGUI loaded on your computer (see
89<a href="http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/xtal/software/expgui/expgui.html">installation links on the EXPGUI home page</a>).
90<a name="downloads"></a>
91You will also need three files that are referenced in the following
92web pages:
93<UL>
94<LI>The Raw data:
95<A HREF="ftp://ftp.ncnr.nist.gov/pub/cryst/gsas/tutorials/al2o3001.gsa">
96al2o3001.gsa</A>
97<LI>The instrument parameter file:
98<A HREF="ftp://ftp.ncnr.nist.gov/pub/cryst/gsas/tutorials/bt1demo.ins">
99bt1demo.ins</A>
100<LI>A CIF file with unit cell and atomic parameters:
101<A HREF="ftp://ftp.ncnr.nist.gov/pub/cryst/gsas/tutorials/alumina.cif">
102alumina.cif</A>
103
104
105<P>
106<blockquote>
107<B>Note:</B><I> 
108While it is possible to have your working GSAS files
109(for example the .EXP file) in a separate directory from
110the raw data file(s), I discourage this practice as it then
111becomes quite difficult to later copy or move the .EXP
112file from one directory or computer to another.
113For this reason, I suggest copying these files
114into the directory where you will create the Experiment
115(.EXP) file.
116</I><P>
117</blockquote>
118</blockquote>
119
120<H2>Tutorial Outline</H2>
121<OL>
122<LI><A HREF="alumina1.html">
123Create a GSAS Experiment File
124</A>
125<LI><A HREF="alumina2.html">
126Adding a phase
127</A>
128<LI><A HREF="alumina3.html">
129Specifying Powder Diffraction Data (Adding a Histogram)
130</A>
131<LI><A HREF="alumina4.html">
132Changing the Background Function
133</A>
134<LI><A HREF="alumina5.html">
135Initial Fitting: Refine Scale Factor and Background
136</A>
137<LI><A HREF="alumina6.html">
138Plotting the Initial Fit
139</A>
140<LI><A HREF="alumina7.html">
141Fitting the Unit Cell
142</A>
143<LI><A HREF="alumina8.html">
144Fitting the Diffractometer Zero Correction
145</A>
146<LI><A HREF="alumina9.html">
147Initial Fitting of Profile Parameters
148</A>
149<LI><A HREF="alumina10.html">
150Group U<sub>iso</sub> parameters &
151Refine coordinates and Overall U<sub>iso</sub></A>
152<LI><A HREF="alumina11.html">
153Finishing Up</A>
154</OL>
155
156<P>
157<H2>Sample files</H2>
158<UL>
159<LI><A HREF="ftp://ftp.ncnr.nist.gov/pub/cryst/gsas/tutorials/al2o3001.gsa">
160al2o3001.gsa</A>
161-- the alumina neutron diffraction data
162<LI><A HREF="ftp://ftp.ncnr.nist.gov/pub/cryst/gsas/tutorials/bt1demo.ins">
163bt1demo.ins</A>
164-- the instrument parameter file
165<LI><A HREF="ftp://ftp.ncnr.nist.gov/pub/cryst/gsas/tutorials/alumina.cif">
166alumina.cif</A>
167-- a CIF file with unit cell and atomic parameters:
168</UL>
169<H2>Acknowledgments</H2>
170<A Href="http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/programs/crystallography/software/gsas.html">
171GSAS</A>
172is written by Allen C. Larson and <A HREF="http://www.nist.gov/cgi-bin/exit_nist.cgi?url=http://lansce.lanl.gov/lujan/staff12/vondreele.htm">
173Robert B. Von Dreele</A>, MS-H805,
174Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545. Problems, questions
175or kudos concerning GSAS should be sent to Robert B. Von Dreele at
176<A HREF="MAILTO:vondreele@anl.gov">vondreele@anl.gov</A>
177<P>GSAS is Copyright, 1984-2003, The Regents of the University of California.
178The GSAS software was produced under a U.S. Government contract (W-7405-ENG-36)
179by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, which is operated by the University
180of California for the U.S. Department of Energy. The U.S. Government is
181licensed to use, reproduce, and distribute this software. Permission is
182granted to the public to copy and use this software without charge, provided
183that this notice and any statement of authorship are reproduced on all
184copies. Neither the Government nor the University makes any warranty, express
185or implied, or assumes any liability or responsibility for the use of this
186software.
187<P>EXPGUI is written by Brian H. Toby of the NIST Center for Neutron Research,
188<A HREF="MAILTO:Brian.Toby@NIST.GOV">Brian.Toby@NIST.GOV</A> 
189
190<P>EXPGUI is not subject to copyright. Have fun with it.
191
192<p>Neither the U.S. Government nor any author makes any warranty,
193expressed or implied, or assumes any liability or responsibility
194for the use of this information or the software described
195here. Brand names cited here are used for
196identification purposes and do not constitute an endorsement by NIST.
197
198<P>
199<HR>
200</blockquote>
201<P><font size=-1><A HREF="MAILTO:crystal@NIST.gov?subject=WWW page <?=$PHP_SELF?>">Comments, corrections or questions: crystal@NIST.gov</A></font><BR>
202<font size=-1><? lastmod(); ?> </font>
203<BR>$Revision: 686 $ $Date: 2009-12-04 23:10:19 +0000 (Fri, 04 Dec 2009) $
204</body>
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